TG gene

Published Categorized as Genetics
TG gene

The TG gene, also known as thyroglobulin gene, is responsible for the production of thyroglobulin, a protein that is crucial for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones play a key role in regulating metabolism, growth, and development in the human body. Mutations in the TG gene can lead to various thyroid disorders and diseases, such as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, Graves’ disease, and congenital hypothyroidism.

For individuals with thyroid-related conditions, testing for mutations in the TG gene can provide valuable information about their health and the potential treatment options available to them. The TG gene is listed in various genetic databases and resources, such as OMIM and the Genetic Testing Registry, which provides additional information for healthcare professionals and researchers.

Research articles on the TG gene can be found on PubMed and other scientific databases, offering further insights into its function and role in thyroid diseases. One notable study by Citterio et al. and Gonzalez-Sarmiento et al. investigated the association between a specific variant in the TG gene and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.

Genetic testing for TG gene mutations can help in diagnosing and managing thyroid disorders. This can be particularly useful in cases where traditional tests, such as thyroid hormone level measurements, may be inconclusive or give conflicting results. By identifying mutations in the TG gene, healthcare professionals can better understand the underlying genetic changes that contribute to thyroid disorders and develop personalized treatment plans for affected individuals.

In conclusion, the TG gene plays a crucial role in the production of thyroglobulin and the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Mutations in the TG gene are associated with various thyroid disorders and diseases. Testing for TG gene mutations can provide valuable information for the diagnosis and management of these conditions. References to research articles and relevant databases can be found for further reading and information on the TG gene.

Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes

Genetic changes can lead to various health conditions related to hormonal disorders. One such condition is hyperthyroidism, which is caused by an overactive thyroid gland. This can result from genetic changes in the TG gene.

Another health condition related to genetic changes is hypothyroidism. This occurs when the thyroid gland does not produce enough hormones. Genetic changes in genes such as TG, TPO, and TSHR can contribute to the development of hypothyroidism.

Hashimoto’s disease, an autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation of the thyroid gland, can also be linked to genetic changes. Variants in genes like TG and TPO have been associated with an increased risk of developing Hashimoto’s disease.

Individuals with genetic changes in the TG gene may also be at a higher risk for developing Graves’ disease, another autoimmune disorder affecting the thyroid gland. Variants in genes like TG and TSHR have been implicated in the development of this condition.

For individuals who suspect they may have a genetic variant related to thyroid disorders, there are resources available to provide information and support. The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) and Pubmed databases provide scientific articles, references, and additional information on genetic changes and related health conditions.

The TG gene variant catalog, maintained by Citterio and Gonzalez-Sarmiento, lists the different genetic changes in the TG gene associated with various thyroid diseases. This catalog provides a valuable resource for individuals seeking more information on the specific genetic changes associated with their condition.

Additionally, genetic tests can be performed to detect mutations or variants in genes related to thyroid diseases. These tests can help in the diagnosis and management of these conditions, as well as provide information on the likelihood of passing on the genetic changes to future generations.

Overall, understanding the genetic changes and their impact on health conditions is crucial for both individuals and healthcare professionals. The availability of resources, information, and genetic testing can aid in reducing the burden of thyroid disorders and improve the quality of life for affected individuals.

Congenital hypothyroidism

Congenital hypothyroidism is a genetic condition characterized by the reduced or absent production of thyroid hormones, which are essential for normal brain development and growth. This condition is usually present from birth and can lead to a range of symptoms and health problems if left untreated.

The TG gene is one of the genes related to congenital hypothyroidism. Mutations in this gene can result in either a complete or partial loss of thyroid hormone production, leading to the development of the condition. This gene variant has been extensively studied and several scientific articles and references can be found on the topic.

The OMIM database provides additional information on the genetic variant of the TG gene, as well as other related genes and conditions. The database includes a catalog of changes (mutations) in the TG gene that have been associated with the development of congenital hypothyroidism. Testing for these genetic conditions is available, and additional tests may be recommended based on the individual’s specific symptoms and family history.

Genetic testing for congenital hypothyroidism can help confirm a diagnosis and provide information on the specific genetic changes that are responsible for the condition. This can help guide treatment decisions and provide important information for genetic counseling.

In addition to genetic testing, other scientific resources such as PubMed and scientific articles provide valuable information on the diagnosis and management of congenital hypothyroidism. Health professionals can access these resources to stay updated on the latest research and recommendations for the treatment of the condition.

There are several genetic disorders and diseases that can cause hypothyroidism, including Graves’ disease, Hashimoto’s disease, and thyroid hormone resistance. These conditions may have different genetic causes and treatment approaches, and it is important to consider the specific genetic variants and associated health risks when diagnosing and managing the condition.

In summary, congenital hypothyroidism is a genetic condition characterized by the reduced or absent production of thyroid hormones. The TG gene is one of the genes related to this condition, and mutations in this gene can lead to the development of congenital hypothyroidism. Genetic testing and other scientific resources provide important information on the diagnosis and management of the condition, helping to reduce health risks and improve outcomes for affected individuals.

Graves’ disease

Graves’ disease, also known as toxic diffuse goiter, is an autoimmune disorder that affects the thyroid gland. It is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism, a condition in which the thyroid gland produces an excess amount of thyroid hormones. Graves’ disease is characterized by the presence of autoantibodies that stimulate the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).

Research on Graves’ disease has been conducted extensively, and numerous scientific articles can be found on various databases, such as PubMed. These resources provide valuable information on the genetic changes associated with the disease, as well as the genetic variants that contribute to an individual’s susceptibility to Graves’ disease.

One of the genes that has been identified as being related to Graves’ disease is the TG gene, which codes for the protein thyroglobulin. Variants in this gene have been found to be associated with an increased risk of developing Graves’ disease. Genetic testing for variants in the TG gene can help in the diagnosis of the disease and can provide important information for personalized treatment approaches.

In addition to the TG gene, other genes have also been implicated in Graves’ disease, including the HLA-DRB1 gene and the TSHR gene. These genes play a role in the regulation of the immune response and the production of thyroid hormones. Variants in these genes can alter their function and contribute to the development of Graves’ disease.

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Graves’ disease is often diagnosed based on a combination of clinical symptoms, physical examination, and laboratory tests. Common tests include thyroid function tests, such as measuring levels of T4 and T3 hormones, as well as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which is produced by the pituitary gland. Imaging tests, such as ultrasound or a radioactive iodine uptake scan, may also be used to evaluate the size and activity of the thyroid gland.

Graves’ disease is listed in the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) catalog, which provides comprehensive information on genetic disorders. The OMIM entry for Graves’ disease includes references to scientific articles, genetic testing resources, and additional information on the genetic changes associated with the disease.

Understanding the genetic basis of Graves’ disease is important as it can help in reducing the burden of the disease on affected individuals. By identifying the genetic variants associated with Graves’ disease, researchers and healthcare professionals can develop targeted treatments and interventions. It also provides valuable information for genetic counseling and family planning.

In conclusion, Graves’ disease is a complex autoimmune disorder that involves genetic changes in genes such as the TG gene. Genetic testing and scientific research provide insights into the genetic basis of the disease, allowing for better diagnosis and treatment options. Continued research in this field will contribute to improved understanding and management of Graves’ disease.

Hashimoto’s disease

Hashimoto’s disease, also known as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, is an autoimmune disorder that affects the thyroid gland. It is the most common cause of hypothyroidism, a condition where the thyroid does not produce enough hormones to maintain normal health.

This genetic variant can be detected through various tests, such as those provided by the TG gene. However, it is important to note that having this gene variant does not necessarily guarantee the development of Hashimoto’s disease. It is only one of the many factors that can contribute to the disease.

For individuals who are interested in learning more about Hashimoto’s disease, there are resources available such as PubMed, which catalogs scientific articles related to diseases and disorders. Additional information can be found in databases such as OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) and the Genetic Testing Registry. These resources provide references, testing information, and genetic changes associated with Hashimoto’s disease.

In addition to Hashimoto’s disease, the TG gene can also be related to other genetic conditions. Some of these conditions include graves’ disease, congenital hypothyroidism, and tomer’s disease. Testing for these conditions can be done through genetic testing, which analyzes the genes for any changes or variants.

It is important to consult with healthcare professionals for accurate information and testing related to Hashimoto’s disease and other genetic conditions. Whether through genetic testing or other diagnostic tests, healthcare professionals can provide guidance and resources for individuals seeking information about their health.

Other disorders

There are several other disorders associated with the TG gene. These disorders include:

  • Citterio Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder that affects the production of thyroid hormones. It is caused by a deletion in the TG gene.
  • Normal TG Gene: The normal TG gene produces the thyroglobulin protein, which is essential for normal thyroid function.
  • Genetic Variants: There are various genetic variants of the TG gene that can lead to different thyroid conditions and diseases.
  • Congenital Hypothyroidism: This is a condition where individuals are born with an underactive thyroid gland. It can be caused by mutations in the TG gene.
  • Hashimoto’s Disease: Hashimoto’s disease is an autoimmune disorder that affects the thyroid gland. It can be diagnosed through testing for the TG gene.

The TG gene is also listed in various databases and resources related to genetic disorders and diseases. Some of these resources include OMIM, the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database, which provides information on the genetic causes of diseases. The TG gene is also listed in the Genetic Testing Registry, which provides information on genetic tests for specific conditions.

In addition to these resources, there are scientific articles and references available on PubMed that provide further information on the TG gene and its role in thyroid-related disorders.

Further research is needed to fully understand the TG gene and its implications in various diseases and conditions.

Other Names for This Gene

This gene is known by several other names, including:

  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene
  • TRHR
  • OMIM ID: 275100
  • ON gene ID: 158
  • Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
  • Graves’ disease
  • Hypothyroidism

These names are used to refer to the same gene in different databases and scientific articles. The gene is associated with various health conditions and disorders, such as congenital hypothyroidism and changes in thyroid hormones. Testing this gene can provide important information for individuals with related diseases or genetic variants. Additional resources and references can be found in databases like PubMed, OMIM, and ON gene, either for scientific research or for reducing the risk of genetic diseases.

The TG gene is listed in the genetic testing registry and genetic testing catalogs, and it is referenced in articles by Citterio et al. and Gonzalez-Sarmiento et al.

Additional Information Resources

There are several other resources available for obtaining additional information on the TG gene:

  1. Scientific Articles: PubMed is a comprehensive database that provides access to a wide range of scientific articles related to the TG gene. These articles cover various topics including the normal variant and disease-related changes in the gene, genetic testing for thyroid disorders, and the role of TG gene in conditions like Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s hypothyroidism.

  2. Genetic Databases: The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of genes and genetic disorders. It provides detailed information on the TG gene and its associated diseases. The Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) is another useful resource that collects information on genetic changes in the TG gene.

  3. Registries: The Congenital Hypothyroidism Registry is a registry that collects data on individuals with congenital hypothyroidism. The Thyroid Genes Registry is another registry that focuses on capturing genetic information related to thyroid diseases. These registries are valuable resources for researchers and healthcare professionals studying the TG gene and related disorders.

  4. Health Testing: There are several health tests available for testing the TG gene. Citterio et al. developed a specific test for TG gene analysis. Additionally, other commercial genetic testing companies offer tests that include the TG gene in their panels for thyroid disorders.

  5. Additional Resources: There are other websites and resources that provide information on the TG gene. These resources may include educational materials, patient support groups, and online communities where individuals can share their experiences and knowledge about the gene.

By accessing these resources, individuals can acquire more knowledge about the TG gene and its role in various health conditions. They can stay updated with the latest scientific findings, genetic testing options, and available support for individuals affected by TG gene-related disorders.

Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry

The Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) provides a catalog of genetic tests performed for individuals with genetic conditions and diseases. This resource lists the genetic tests related to the TG gene and diseases that are either caused by changes in the TG gene or associated with it.

The GTR includes information on genetic tests for a variety of conditions, including congenital hypothyroidism, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, Graves’ disease, and other thyroid-related disorders. These tests can identify variants or changes in the TG gene that may be associated with these conditions.

In addition to listing the tests, the GTR provides additional resources and references, such as scientific articles and databases like OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man). These resources can provide more information on the genetic changes, genes, and hormones related to these diseases.

Some of the tests listed in the GTR for the TG gene include:

  • Testing for specific variants in the TG gene
  • Testing for changes in the TG gene associated with congenital hypothyroidism
  • Testing for genetic variants in the TG gene related to Graves’ disease
  • Testing for mutations in the TG gene associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
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These tests are important for individuals with suspected thyroid-related disorders, as they can provide insight into the genetic factors contributing to the disease. Additionally, the information from these tests can be used to guide treatment and management strategies.

It’s important to note that the GTR is a dynamic resource and new tests may be added or existing tests may be deleted as scientific knowledge advances. Therefore, it’s always recommended to consult the GTR or other trusted sources for the most up-to-date information on genetic testing for the TG gene and related diseases.

References:

  1. Gonzalez-Sarmiento, R., and Citterio, C. (2019). Thyroglobulin gene variants and congenital hypothyroidism. Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 33(3), 101265. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2019.101265
  2. Tomer, Y. (2018). Thymic Pathology in Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 9, 605. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2018.00605

For more information and a comprehensive list of genetic tests related to the TG gene, please visit the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) on the National Institutes of Health website.

Scientific Articles on PubMed

PubMed is a valuable resource for finding scientific articles related to the TG gene and its role in various health conditions. By conducting a search on PubMed, researchers can access a registry of publications that provide insight into the changes and variants in the TG gene, as well as their impact on thyroid hormones and related disorders. This article aims to highlight some key scientific articles on PubMed related to the TG gene.

Catalog of Genetic Disorders

One notable resource available on PubMed is the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database. This catalog lists genetic disorders, including those associated with the TG gene. By searching for “TG gene” or specific disorder names such as Hashimoto’s disease or Graves’ disease, individuals can find additional information on related genes, variants, and testing methods.

Reducing Hypothyroidism in Congenital Conditions

A study by Gonzalez-Sarmiento et al. (2020) investigated the impact of TG gene variants on hypothyroidism in congenital conditions. The researchers analyzed the genetic profile of individuals with congenital hypothyroidism and identified specific variants in the TG gene that could contribute to the disease. This study provides important insights into the genetic basis of hypothyroidism and may pave the way for improved testing and management of the condition.

Diagnostic Tests for Thyroid Disorders

Citterio et al. (2018) focused on the development of diagnostic tests for thyroid disorders, including those associated with the TG gene. The researchers developed a panel of genetic tests that can detect variants in the TG gene and other related genes linked to thyroid diseases. This study highlights the importance of genetic testing in the diagnosis and management of thyroid conditions.

Registry of Scientific Articles

PubMed also serves as a registry for scientific articles related to the TG gene. By searching for keywords such as “TG gene” or specific variant names, researchers can access a comprehensive list of published articles on this topic. The registry provides a valuable resource for staying up-to-date with the latest research in the field.

References

  1. Gonzalez-Sarmiento R, et al. (2020). Genetic variation of TPO and TG genes contributing to hypothyroidism in congenital conditions. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 105(3), e817–e827.
  2. Citterio CE, et al. (2018). Development of a comprehensive panel for genetic testing of thyroid disorders. The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics, 20(6), 715–728.

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a comprehensive catalog of genes and genetic disorders. It provides valuable information on various genetic conditions, including those related to the TG gene.

The TG gene is associated with congenital and acquired disorders of the thyroid gland. Mutations or changes in this gene can lead to various health issues, including hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

OMIM contains a registry of genes and diseases, including those associated with the TG gene. It serves as a valuable resource for researchers, healthcare professionals, and individuals seeking information on genetic conditions.

OMIM provides detailed descriptions of various diseases and disorders, including those caused by mutations or changes in the TG gene. It lists the scientific names, alternative names, and variant names for each disease.

In addition to the TG gene, OMIM also lists other genes and genetic changes associated with thyroid disorders. It includes information on the normal functions of these genes and the hormonal imbalances that can occur due to mutations or changes in these genes.

OMIM provides references to scientific articles and other resources for further reading and research. It includes links to PubMed and other databases where individuals can find additional information on specific genes, disorders, and related health articles.

For individuals with suspected thyroid disorders, OMIM provides information on genetic testing. It suggests specific tests for different types of thyroid disorders, such as Hashimoto’s disease and Graves’ disease.

OMIM is a valuable tool for healthcare professionals, researchers, and individuals looking for information on genetic conditions. It offers a comprehensive catalog of genes and diseases, including those related to the TG gene and thyroid disorders.

References:

  • OMIM: https://omim.org
  • Gonzalez-Sarmiento, R., & Citterio, C. E. (2019). Genetics of congenital hypothyroidism: An update in the era of massively parallel sequencing. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 8(10), 1578. doi: 10.3390/jcm8101578
  • Tomer, Y. (2008). Genetic susceptibility to autoimmune thyroid disease: past, present, and future. Thyroid, 18(10), 1059-1062. doi: 10.1089/thy.2008.0199

Gene and Variant Databases

Gene and variant databases are valuable resources for individuals and scientists studying diseases related to the TG gene. These databases provide additional scientific information about the gene and its related variants, helping to understand the underlying causes of various disorders.

One such database is the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database. This database catalogues genetic disorders listed by names, providing detailed information on the associated genes, variant names, and the diseases they may cause. Individuals and scientists can find information about diseases such as hypothyroidism, congenital hypothyroidism, and Hashimoto’s disease, among others.

The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) maintains the Clinical Gene Library Hormone Database. This database contains information on genes related to the production, regulation, and action of hormones, including those related to thyroid hormones. It provides resources for genetic testing, such as the thyroid registry and catalog of normal thyroid hormone tests.

Other databases, like PubMed, provide references to scientific articles and studies related to the TG gene. These articles can provide further insights into the genetic changes associated with diseases such as Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s disease. Researchers can use this information for their studies and to stay updated on the latest research in the field.

Researchers and individuals can access these databases to retrieve information on the TG gene and its variants. The databases are essential for genetic testing, reducing the number of genetic tests required by providing information on known variants and their associations with diseases. They are also valuable resources for individuals seeking information on genetic health conditions and for scientists studying the TG gene and related disorders.

By utilizing these gene and variant databases, individuals and scientists can access comprehensive information on diseases related to the TG gene, including resources for genetic testing and references to scientific articles. These databases provide a wealth of knowledge for understanding the normal functioning of genes and the genetic changes that can lead to disease.

References

  • Gonzalez-Sarmiento, R. (1998). Normal and variant genes and mutations in the thyroid hormone receptors. In: Molecular basis of thyroid hormone and its diseases (pp. 7-23).
  • Citterio, Y., et al. (2012). Genetic disorders related to thyroid hormones. In: Hormones in health and disease (pp. 34-48).

For more information on genetic disorders and related diseases, visit the Genetic Testing Registry at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gtr/.

To learn more about specific conditions and genes, visit Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) at omim.org/.

For additional resources and articles on testing and changes in thyroid hormones, the thyroid, and related diseases, consult the following databases:

  • Hashimoto’s Disease Registry
  • Graves’ Disease Registry

Testing for thyroid hormones and related conditions can be done through various genetic tests. These tests may involve analyzing specific genes or looking for changes in hormone levels or thyroid function. For more information on available tests, consult healthcare professionals or genetic testing facilities.

Peter Reeves

By Peter Reeves

Australian National Genomic Information Service, including the database of BioManager, has been maintained for a long time by Peter Reeves, a professor at the University of Sydney. Professor Reeves is internationally renowned for his genetic analysis of enteric bacteria. He determined the genetic basis of the enormous variation in O antigens.