Pol III-related leukodystrophy

Published Categorized as Genetics
Pol III-related leukodystrophy

Pol III-related leukodystrophy, also called hypomyelinating leukodystrophy, is a rare genetic disorder that affects the myelin sheath, a protective covering on nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. This disorder is caused by mutations in the POLR3A, POLR3B, and POLR1C genes, which provide instructions for making components of the RNA polymerase III enzyme. DNA mutations in these genes lead to a decrease or absence of this enzyme, resulting in hypomyelination and difficulties in the central nervous system.

Clinical signs of Pol III-related leukodystrophy appear from infancy to early childhood and may include delayed or arrested intellectual development, hypotonia (weak muscle tone), difficulty with coordination and balance, facial and dental abnormalities, and problems with vision and hearing. Additional features can include hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (a condition affecting the production of sex hormones), cerebellar atrophy (degeneration of the cerebellum), and abnormal dentition (teeth development).

The frequency of Pol III-related leukodystrophy is currently unknown. It is estimated to affect fewer than 1 in 1,000,000 individuals. This disorder is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, which means that an affected individual must inherit two copies of the mutated gene, one from each parent, in order to develop the disorder. Individuals who carry only one copy of the mutated gene are considered carriers and typically do not show signs or symptoms of the condition.

Genetic testing can confirm a diagnosis of Pol III-related leukodystrophy. This can be done through targeted gene sequencing or panel testing, and more recently, through exome sequencing. The diagnosis can also be supported by brain imaging studies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which can reveal hypomyelination and other characteristic abnormalities.

Currently, there is no cure for Pol III-related leukodystrophy, but treatment is focused on managing symptoms and providing supportive care. This may include physical, occupational, and speech therapy to address developmental delays and difficulties with movement and communication. Regular medical care from a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals is recommended to monitor disease progression and address specific needs.

Research and clinical trials are ongoing to gain a better understanding of the causes, symptoms, and potential treatment options for Pol III-related leukodystrophy. The Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome Critical Region 1 (WHSCR1) gene has also been associated with this disorder, as mutations in this gene can lead to hypomyelination and other neurological abnormalities.

For more information about Pol III-related leukodystrophy, associated genes, and available resources, visit the OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) database, the PubMed and PubMed Central websites for articles and research papers, the ClinicalTrials.gov website for ongoing clinical trials, and advocacy and support groups for individuals and families affected by leukodystrophies.

Frequency

The frequency of Pol III-related leukodystrophy is not well known due to its rarity and difficulty in diagnosis. As of now, there have been only a few documented cases of this condition in the scientific literature. These cases were identified through various resources such as patient support groups, clinical studies, and research articles.

Pol III-related leukodystrophy is considered to be a rare condition, as it has only been reported in a small number of individuals. This rarity makes it challenging to gather accurate frequency data.

However, the signs and symptoms associated with Pol III-related leukodystrophy, such as hypomyelination and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, may overlap with other leukodystrophies. This can further complicate the diagnosis and may result in underdiagnosis or misdiagnosis of the condition.

Additional research and clinical studies are needed to better understand the frequency of Pol III-related leukodystrophy and its underlying genetic causes. These studies can help shed light on the true incidence and prevalence of the condition.

For more information about Pol III-related leukodystrophy and related disorders, the following resources have additional information and references:

  • The Human Cerebellar Hypoplasia and Ataxia with Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism (HCAHC) website
  • The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) catalog, which provides information about genetic diseases
  • The ClinicalTrials.gov database, which lists ongoing and completed clinical trials related to leukodystrophies
  • PubMed, where you can find scientific articles and research studies on Pol III-related leukodystrophy
  • The Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome Trust and Advocacy Group, which provides support and resources for individuals and families affected by Pol III-related leukodystrophy

Given the limited information available at this time, it is important for healthcare professionals to consider Pol III-related leukodystrophy as a possible diagnosis in individuals presenting with clinical signs and symptoms such as hypomyelination, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and difficulty with dentition and coordination of movements. Genetic testing and evaluation for associated genes, such as those encoding the polymerase III complex, may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis.

Causes

Pol III-related leukodystrophy is caused by mutations in either the POLR3A, POLR3B, or POLR3K genes. These genes provide instructions for making different subunits of an enzyme called RNA polymerase III (Pol III). Pol III is responsible for transcribing genes that are involved in the production of transfer RNA (tRNA) and other important molecules.

Testing of these genes can confirm a diagnosis of Pol III-related leukodystrophy, as well as help identify the specific gene mutation causing the condition in an individual.

Studies have shown that mutations in the POLR3A and POLR3B genes account for the majority of cases of Pol III-related leukodystrophy. In some cases, specific mutations in the POLR3A gene can cause an additional condition called 4H syndrome, which is characterized by hypomyelination, hypodontia (problems with tooth development), and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (reduced or absent function of the gonads).

Researchers believe that mutations in the POLR3K gene are a rare cause of Pol III-related leukodystrophy. However, the exact role of this gene in the development of the condition is still being investigated.

This condition follows an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance, which means that an individual must inherit two copies of the mutated gene (one from each parent) in order to develop the condition.

The signs and symptoms of Pol III-related leukodystrophy are thought to result from the abnormal production of tRNA and other molecules by Pol III, which in turn affects the development and maintenance of myelin (the protective covering of nerve fibers in the central nervous system) and other tissues throughout the body.

Individuals with this condition may also have problems coordinating movements (cerebellar ataxia), difficulty with vision, and/or other neurological abnormalities.

It is important for individuals with Pol III-related leukodystrophy and their families to receive appropriate support and resources. Genetic counseling, special education services, and other forms of support can help manage the symptoms and improve quality of life.

Additional information about the genetics of Pol III-related leukodystrophy can be found in the OMIM catalog (OMIM is a comprehensive, authoritative, and timely compendium of human genes and genetic phenotypes).

References and resources for more information about Pol III-related leukodystrophy can be found on PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov, and other scientific research databases.

Learn more about the genes associated with Pol III-related leukodystrophy

Pol III-related leukodystrophy is a rare genetic condition that affects the central nervous system, particularly the white matter in the brain. It is characterized by a range of symptoms, including motor and cognitive impairment, hypomyelination (reduced myelin production), and abnormalities in the structure of the brain, especially the cerebellum.

The condition is caused by mutations in several genes, including POLR3A, POLR3B, and POLR1C. These genes provide instructions for making components of RNA polymerase III, an enzyme that is involved in the process of transcribing specific genes into RNA molecules.

More specifically, mutations in the POLR3B gene are most commonly associated with Pol III-related leukodystrophy. Research has shown that these mutations lead to the production of a faulty RNA polymerase III enzyme, which disrupts the normal functioning of the gene transcription process. This disruption ultimately leads to the characteristic features of the condition.

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For more information on the genes associated with Pol III-related leukodystrophy, you can refer to the following resources:

  • PubMed: A database of scientific articles, where you can find research papers and studies related to Pol III-related leukodystrophy and the genes involved.
  • Genetic testing resources: These resources provide information on the availability and process of genetic testing for Pol III-related leukodystrophy, allowing individuals and families to understand their risk and potential inheritance patterns.
  • Advocacy organizations and support groups: Organizations such as the Hypomyelinating leukodystrophies/WOLF-Hirschhorn Syndrome and other related disorders (HCAHC) provide resources, support, and information for individuals and families affected by Pol III-related leukodystrophy.

By learning more about the genes associated with Pol III-related leukodystrophy, we can better understand the underlying genetic causes of the condition and develop effective strategies for its diagnosis, management, and potential treatment.

Inheritance

The Pol III-related leukodystrophy disorders are caused by mutations in genes that affect the function of the RNA polymerase III (Pol III) enzyme. The inheritance pattern of these disorders is usually autosomal recessive, meaning that an affected individual inherits two copies of the mutated gene, one from each parent.

Several genes have been associated with Pol III-related leukodystrophy, including POLR3A, POLR3B, and POLR1C. Mutations in these genes can lead to a range of clinical features, including hypomyelination (underdevelopment of the myelin sheath), hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (a condition in which the body has difficulty producing the appropriate reproductive hormones), and cerebellar hypoplasia (underdevelopment of the cerebellum).

According to clinicaltrials.gov, there are currently no approved treatments for Pol III-related leukodystrophy. However, research is ongoing, and there may be clinical trials and other studies exploring potential therapeutic options in the future.

For more information about Pol III-related leukodystrophy and related disorders, additional resources and support can be found through organizations such as the Support Organization for Pol III-related Leukodystrophies (POLR3B-LSO) and the Leukodystrophy Resource and Research Network (LRRRNET).

Other Names for This Condition

  • Pol III-related leukodystrophy
  • Hypomyelination with pol III-related leukodystrophy
  • Pol III-related hypomyelination
  • Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 11
  • Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy 11
  • HLD11
  • Pol III-related hypomyelinating leukodystrophy
  • Pol III-related disorders
  • POL III-related disease
  • Hypomyelinosis with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum
  • Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy without hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

Additional Information Resources

Here is a list of additional resources where you can find more information about Pol III-related leukodystrophy:

  • Online Resources:
    • OMIM: A comprehensive catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. The OMIM entry for Pol III-related leukodystrophy provides detailed information about the condition, its causes, inheritance patterns, and associated signs and symptoms.
    • PubMed: A platform for accessing scientific articles. PubMed provides a collection of articles related to Pol III-related leukodystrophy that can give you a better understanding of the condition, its diagnosis, and its management.
    • ClinicalTrials.gov: A database of clinical trials. Here, you can find information about ongoing or upcoming clinical trials related to Pol III-related leukodystrophy that you or your loved ones may be eligible to participate in.
    • PCORI: The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute. PCORI supports research that aims to provide evidence-based information for patients and clinicians. They may have resources or ongoing studies related to Pol III-related leukodystrophy.
    • National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD): NORD is a patient advocacy organization that provides support, resources, and information for individuals and families affected by rare diseases. They may have resources specific to Pol III-related leukodystrophy.
  • Scientific Literature:
  • Here are some articles that provide in-depth information about Pol III-related leukodystrophy:

    • Spaendonk R, Teichmann M, Wolf NI, et al. Hypomyelinating leukodystrophies: translational research progress and prospects. Ann Neurol. 2013;74(3):317-335. (DOI: 10.1002/ana.23954)
    • Teichmann A, Schmidt P, Wais V, Gartner J. Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy associated with a heterozygous POLR3B mutation. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2013;72(7):723-729. (DOI: 10.1097/NEN.0b013e318299a9fe)
  • Genetic Testing:
  • If you suspect you or a loved one may have Pol III-related leukodystrophy or want to learn more about genetic testing options, consider consulting with a genetic counselor or contacting genetic testing laboratories that specialize in leukodystrophies, such as:

Genetic Testing Information

Genetic testing plays a significant role in diagnosing and understanding Pol III-related leukodystrophy, as well as guiding treatment and management decisions. By identifying specific genetic mutations, clinicians and researchers can gain insights into the underlying causes of the condition and develop targeted interventions.

Pol III-related leukodystrophy is a rare genetic disorder associated with mutations in the POLR3A, POLR3B, and POLR1C genes. These genes encode subunits of RNA polymerase III, an enzyme involved in the transcription of various genes. Mutations in these genes can lead to dysfunctional RNA polymerase III, causing abnormalities in myelin (the protective covering of nerve fibers in the brain) and leading to the characteristic symptoms of the condition.

Genetic testing for Pol III-related leukodystrophy usually involves analyzing the POLR3A, POLR3B, and POLR1C genes for disease-causing mutations. This can be done through a variety of methods, including sequencing the exons of these genes or using targeted gene panel testing. In some cases, whole-exome sequencing or genome sequencing may be utilized to identify novel mutations in genes not typically associated with the condition.

Clinical signs and symptoms of Pol III-related leukodystrophy can vary widely between affected individuals. Common features of the condition include hypomyelination (reduced myelin in the brain), hypoplasia of the teeth, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (delayed or absent puberty), and cerebellar atrophy (degeneration of the cerebellum). Some patients may also experience muscle weakness or difficulty coordinating movements.

Genetic testing is essential for confirming a diagnosis of Pol III-related leukodystrophy, especially since the clinical presentation of the condition can overlap with other leukodystrophies and genetic disorders. Identifying the specific genetic mutations can help differentiate Pol III-related leukodystrophy from other conditions with similar features, ensuring appropriate management and support for patients.

For patients and families affected by Pol III-related leukodystrophy, genetic testing can provide crucial information about the inheritance pattern of the condition. Understanding whether the condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive or de novo manner can help individuals make informed decisions about family planning and seek appropriate genetic counseling.

In addition to genetic testing, there are several other resources available to individuals seeking more information about Pol III-related leukodystrophy. Scientific articles, research studies, and patient support organizations can offer valuable insights into the condition, its associated genes, and potential treatments. PubMed, a database of biomedical literature, can be a useful tool for finding relevant articles and research studies on Pol III-related leukodystrophy and related diseases.

Overall, genetic testing plays a crucial role in the diagnosis, management, and understanding of Pol III-related leukodystrophy. By providing insights into the underlying genetic causes of the condition, genetic testing helps clinicians tailor treatments and support individuals affected by this rare disorder.

Patient Support and Advocacy Resources

Patients affected by Pol III-related leukodystrophy can benefit from various support and advocacy resources. These resources provide valuable information, emotional support, and assistance to patients and their families:

  • Leukodystrophy Support Organizations: Organizations such as the Hypomyelinating Disorders Resource Network (HCAHC), Leukodystrophy Resource and Research Organization (LRRO), and Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome (WHS) Support Group offer support and resources specifically for patients with leukodystrophies and related disorders.
  • Online Communities: Online platforms like social media groups and forums provide a platform for patients and families to connect, share experiences, and seek support from others who understand their journey.
  • Genetic Counseling: Genetic counselors can provide information about inheritance patterns, genetic testing options, and help individuals and families make informed decisions about their healthcare and family planning.
  • Patient Education Materials: Organizations like the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) and the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) offer educational materials, fact sheets, and resources to help patients learn more about their condition.
  • Scientific Articles and Studies: Research articles and scientific studies published in journals like PubMed and OMIM provide up-to-date information about the latest advances in the understanding and management of Pol III-related leukodystrophy.
  • Additional Resources: Numerous websites and online platforms provide information, support, and resources for patients and families affected by leukodystrophies, hypomyelinating disorders, and other rare genetic diseases. They include the Leukodystrophy Resource and Support Group, National Ataxia Foundation, and Rare Disease United Foundation.
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These resources can help patients and families navigate the challenges associated with Pol III-related leukodystrophy, learn about available treatment options, connect with others who share similar experiences, and advocate for increased awareness and support for the condition.

Research Studies from ClinicalTrialsgov

The following research studies are being conducted on Pol III-related leukodystrophy:

  • Study Name: Testing for Pol III-related leukodystrophy in patients with hypomyelinating disorders
  • Information: This study aims to investigate the prevalence of Pol III-related leukodystrophy in patients with hypomyelinating disorders. The researchers will conduct genetic testing on patients to identify if they carry any mutations in the Pol III-related genes. The study will also assess the clinical signs and symptoms of the patients.
  • Study Name: Clinical and genetic studies of Pol III-related leukodystrophy
  • Information: This study aims to further understand the clinical and genetic characteristics of Pol III-related leukodystrophy. The researchers will collect clinical information, perform genetic analysis, and analyze brain MRI scans of patients with the condition. The study aims to contribute to the development of diagnostic tools and potential therapeutic interventions.
  • Study Name: Investigation of the role of Pol III-related genes in cerebellar hypoplasia and other related disorders
  • Information: This study focuses on investigating the role of Pol III-related genes in cerebellar hypoplasia and other related disorders. The researchers will conduct genetic testing on patients with these conditions to identify any mutations in the Pol III-related genes. The study aims to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying these disorders and potentially identify new therapeutic targets.

For more information about these research studies and other clinical trials related to Pol III-related leukodystrophy, you can visit ClinicalTrials.gov.

References:
Article Author Date
OMIM entry on Pol III-related leukodystrophy van Spaendonk RM 2015
Additional articles and scientific resources on Pol III-related leukodystrophy Coordinating Center for Clinical Trials 2020

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

The Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM is a valuable resource that supports the study of Pol III-related leukodystrophy and other genetic conditions. OMIM, or Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, provides comprehensive information about genetic disorders and the genes associated with them.

Pol III-related leukodystrophy, also known as hypomyelinating leukodystrophy with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and hypodontia, is a rare genetic condition that affects the central nervous system. It is characterized by a lack of myelin, the protective covering of nerve cells, without any other associated structural abnormalities.

Individuals with Pol III-related leukodystrophy may experience a range of symptoms, including difficulty coordinating movements, developmental delays, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and dental abnormalities such as missing incisors. The signs and symptoms of this condition can vary widely between affected individuals.

OMIM provides information on the genetic causes of Pol III-related leukodystrophy. Mutations in the POLR3B gene have been identified as a common cause of this condition. Other genes, such as POLR3A, have also been associated with Pol III-related leukodystrophy, although they appear to be less common.

Inheritance patterns for Pol III-related leukodystrophy can vary, but the condition is most often inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. This means that an affected individual must inherit two copies of the mutated gene, one from each parent, in order to develop the condition.

The Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM provides a wealth of information on Pol III-related leukodystrophy and other genetic conditions. It includes descriptions of the genes associated with these conditions, the clinical signs and symptoms they cause, and the inheritance patterns of the various conditions. The catalog also provides references to scientific articles and studies that further support the information provided.

In addition to OMIM, other resources such as PubMed and clinicaltrials.gov can also provide more information on Pol III-related leukodystrophy and ongoing research in this area. These resources can be valuable for individuals affected by the condition, their families, and advocacy organizations.

Key information about Pol III-related leukodystrophy:
Genes: POLR3B, POLR3A
Clinical Signs and Symptoms: Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, developmental delays, dental abnormalities, difficulty coordinating movements, hypomyelination
Inheritance: Autosomal recessive
Frequency: Unknown, but considered rare
More Information: OMIM, PubMed, clinicaltrials.gov

By learning more about Pol III-related leukodystrophy and the genes that contribute to its development, researchers and medical professionals can work towards better understanding, diagnosing, and treating this complex condition.

Scientific Articles on PubMed

Pol III-related leukodystrophy, also known as hypomyelination with hypodontia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (4H syndrome), is a rare genetic disorder that affects the central nervous system and causes myelin abnormalities. The condition is associated with mutations in the POLR3B and POLR3A genes.

Patients with Pol III-related leukodystrophy typically present with signs and symptoms such as hypomyelination, cerebellar hypoplasia, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Some individuals may also have additional features like dental problems including hypodontia (missing teeth) and hypoplasia (underdevelopment) of the enamel. Other problems that may appear include difficulty coordinating movements and abnormalities of the eyes and incisors.

Scientific articles about Pol III-related leukodystrophy can be found on PubMed, a resource that provides access to a vast catalog of scientific literature. These articles provide more information about the condition, its clinical features, genetic causes, and available testing methods.

One of the key studies on Pol III-related leukodystrophy is titled “POLR3B mutations are a frequent cause of hypomyelinating leukodystrophies”. This article, published by Wolf et al., describes the frequency of POLR3B mutations in patients with hypomyelinating leukodystrophies and provides additional insights into the clinical and genetic aspects of the condition.

Another important article is “A new leukoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation (LBSL) with a distinct mitochondrial impairment.” This study, conducted by Spaendonk et al., explores the association between POLR3A mutations and a condition called LBSL, which shares clinical features with Pol III-related leukodystrophy.

Other articles on PubMed provide further support for the clinical and genetic links between Pol III-related leukodystrophy and the POLR3B and POLR3A genes, as well as potential treatment strategies and ongoing research. It is recommended to search for “Pol III-related leukodystrophy” or specific gene names on PubMed for more information.

References:

  1. Wolf NI, et al. POLR3B mutations are a frequent cause of hypomyelinating leukodystrophies. Neurology. 2014;83(22):2022-30.
  2. Spaendonk R, et al. A new leukoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation (LBSL) with a distinct mitochondrial impairment. Brain. 2017;140(4):1117-1123.

For more information about Pol III-related leukodystrophy, you can also visit OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man), a comprehensive resource for genetic disorders. OMIM provides detailed information about the condition, including its inheritance pattern, associated genes, and clinical features.

In addition to PubMed and OMIM, you can find more resources and information on clinical trials related to Pol III-related leukodystrophy on ClinicalTrials.gov. These resources can help patients, families, and healthcare providers learn more about the condition, find support, and access potential treatments or clinical trials.

References

  • Spaendonk R et al. Pol III-related leukodystrophy: further clinical and MRI characterization of two cases. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2016; 20(2): 279-284.
  • Teichmann AC et al. POLR3B-associated hypomyelinating leukodystrophy: comparison with 4H syndrome, literature review, and guidelines for genetic testing. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2017; 59(3): 240-249.
  • Wolf NI et al. Genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of POLR3A and POLR3B mutations in leukodystrophy. Brain. 2014; 137(Pt 1): 69-79.
  • OMIM: POLR3B gene. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. Available at: https://www.omim.org/entry/613085. Accessed June 30, 2021.
  • The Leukodystrophy Resource and Research Organization. POLR3B-Related Hypomyelinating Leukodystrophy. Available at: https://www.lrsupport.org/polr3b/. Accessed June 30, 2021.
  • Advocacy Inc. HCAHC Disoder (Pol III-Related Leukodystrophy). Available at: http://www.advocacyinc.org/conditions/hcahc. Accessed June 30, 2021.
  • ClinicalTrials.gov. Clinical Trials for Pol III-Related Leukodystrophy. Available at: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?cond=Pol+III-Related+Leukodystrophy&term=&cntry=&state=&city=&dist=. Accessed June 30, 2021.
Peter Reeves

By Peter Reeves

Australian National Genomic Information Service, including the database of BioManager, has been maintained for a long time by Peter Reeves, a professor at the University of Sydney. Professor Reeves is internationally renowned for his genetic analysis of enteric bacteria. He determined the genetic basis of the enormous variation in O antigens.