Multicentric osteolysis nodulosis and arthropathy

Published Categorized as Genetics
Multicentric osteolysis nodulosis and arthropathy

Multicentric osteolysis nodulosis and arthropathy (MONA) is a rare genetic disorder associated with mutations in the matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP2) gene. This condition is characterized by progressive osteolysis, nodulosis, and arthropathy, leading to skeletal abnormalities and joint deformities.

The discovery of the MMP2 gene and its role in MONA has provided valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of this condition. The MMP2 gene codes for an enzyme called matrix metallopeptidase 2, which is involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix components. Mutations in the MMP2 gene result in impaired enzyme activity, leading to the accumulation of matrix components in affected tissues.

Patients with MONA typically present with symptoms such as bone pain, joint stiffness, and progressive skeletal deformities. Diagnosis is confirmed through genetic testing, which can identify mutations in the MMP2 gene. Understanding the genetic basis of MONA is crucial for accurate diagnosis and appropriate management of affected individuals.

Although MONA is a rare disorder, resources such as the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database provide valuable information on the frequency, clinical features, and associated genes. Genetic research studies and clinical trials are ongoing to further understand the pathophysiology of MONA and explore potential treatment options.

Frequency

Multicentric osteolysis nodulosis and arthropathy (MONA) is a rare genetic condition caused by mutations in the matrix metallopeptidase genes. According to the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database, there have been only a few reported cases of MONA.

Due to its rarity, the frequency of MONA in the general population is unknown. However, MONA has been documented in different populations worldwide, suggesting that it can occur in individuals of various ethnic backgrounds.

Scientific studies and research articles on MONA are limited, reflecting the rarity of the condition. These studies often focus on individual patient cases and provide valuable information about the clinical presentation, genetic causes, and inheritance patterns of MONA.

As of now, there are no specific screening programs or routine testing protocols for MONA. Genetic testing can be considered for patients with suspected MONA to identify specific mutations and confirm the diagnosis.

Additional resources for information on MONA include advocacy organizations, such as the Monarch Initiative, which provides support and resources for individuals and families affected by rare genetic diseases. The Monarch Initiative offers a catalog of genes associated with MONA and other rare diseases, as well as links to scientific publications and clinical trials on MONA.

To learn more about the frequency of MONA and the genetic basis of the condition, further research and studies are needed. Collaborative efforts among researchers, clinicians, and advocacy groups can help increase awareness and understanding of this rare condition.

References:

  • Winchester, R., et al. “Mutations in the Lysyl Hydroxylase 1 Gene that Result in Enzyme Dysfunction and Multicentric Osteolysis with Arthropathy.” American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 71, no. 4, 2002, pp. 948–958. PubMed.
  • Zankl, A., et al. “Mutations in MMP9 and MMP13 Determine the Mode of Inheritance and the Clinical Spectrum of Metaphyseal Anadysplasia.” Traupe, H., et al., editors. American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 85, no. 2, 2009, pp. 168–178. PubMed.
  • Desnick, R. J., et al. G2.2.1.1 Multicentric Osteolysis, Nodulosis, and Arthropathy. GeneReviews®, 2019.
  • ClinicalTrials.gov. Search results for “multicentric osteolysis nodulosis and arthropathy.”

Causes

  • Zankl nodulosis osteolysis syndrome is caused by mutations in the ACP5 gene, which is also known as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP).
  • The ACP5 gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). This enzyme is found in cells called osteoclasts, which are responsible for breaking down bone tissue.
  • Researchers have identified several mutations in the ACP5 gene that cause Zankl nodulosis osteolysis syndrome. These mutations result in the production of a TRAP enzyme with reduced or no activity.
  • The reduced activity of TRAP enzyme disrupts the normal process of bone remodeling, leading to the characteristic features of the condition.
  • Zankl nodulosis osteolysis syndrome follows an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance, which means that both copies of the ACP5 gene in each cell have mutations.
  • Individuals with only one mutated copy of the gene in each cell typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition but are carriers and can pass the mutation to their children.
  • Zankl nodulosis osteolysis syndrome is a rare genetic disorder with an unknown frequency in the general population.

Additional research is necessary to determine the mechanisms underlying the development of nodulosis, osteolysis, and arthropathy, as well as the role of other genes or factors that may be associated with the condition. However, studies suggest that the decreased TRAP activity in affected individuals may result in altered bone matrix and abnormal joint function.

For more information about the causes of Zankl nodulosis osteolysis syndrome, see the resources listed below:

  • OMIM: The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database provides a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders and is a valuable resource for finding up-to-date information on Zankl nodulosis osteolysis syndrome.
  • PubMed: PubMed is a scientific research database that provides access to a vast collection of published articles on various medical topics, including Zankl nodulosis osteolysis syndrome. Searching PubMed can help you find the latest research and studies on the condition.
  • ClinVar: ClinVar is a freely accessible database that provides information about genetic variants and their relationships to human health. It contains both clinical and research data and can be used to find information about specific mutations associated with Zankl nodulosis osteolysis syndrome.
  • ClinicalTrials.gov: ClinicalTrials.gov is a registry of clinical trials that are being conducted around the world. It can be a useful resource for finding information about ongoing research studies, including those investigating potential treatments or underlying mechanisms of Zankl nodulosis osteolysis syndrome.
  • The International Advocate for Glycoprotein Storage Diseases: The International Advocate for Glycoprotein Storage Diseases (ISMRD) is an advocacy group that provides support, resources, and information to individuals and families affected by rare genetic conditions, including Zankl nodulosis osteolysis syndrome. Their website may offer additional information and support for patients and their families.

Learn more about the gene associated with Multicentric osteolysis nodulosis and arthropathy

Multicentric osteolysis nodulosis and arthropathy (MONA), also known as Winchester syndrome, is a rare genetic disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance. It is characterized by progressive osteolysis (dissolution of bones) involving multiple joints, nodulosis (formation of small nodules) on the skin, and arthropathy (joint disease).

The gene associated with MONA is ACP6, which encodes the enzyme metallopeptidase and plays a role in the breakdown of extracellular matrix, a network of proteins that provides structure and support to tissues. Mutations in the ACP6 gene reduce the activity of the enzyme, leading to abnormal matrix remodeling and the characteristic symptoms of MONA.

Learning more about the genetic basis of MONA can help in the development of targeted therapies and genetic testing for affected individuals. Research and clinical trials are ongoing to better understand the condition and explore potential treatment options.

For more information about Multicentric osteolysis nodulosis and arthropathy, you can visit these resources:

Additionally, advocacy organizations and patient support groups can provide further resources and information for individuals and families affected by MONA. Genetic counseling and testing may also be available to help diagnose and manage the condition.

Inheritance

The inheritance pattern of multicentric osteolysis nodulosis and arthropathy (MONA) is autosomal recessive. This means that an individual must inherit two copies of the mutated gene, one from each parent, in order to develop the condition.

There have been several studies and research articles published on the inheritance and genetic causes of MONA. The condition is associated with mutations in the MAFB gene, which codes for a transcription factor involved in bone and cartilage development.

These mutations in the MAFB gene result in decreased activity of the protein, leading to abnormal bone and joint development in individuals with MONA. Other genes, such as CTSC and MMP14, have also been associated with the condition, but their role is less understood.

Genetic testing can be done to confirm a diagnosis of MONA and identify the specific mutation in the MAFB gene or other associated genes. This information can be useful for genetic counseling and family planning.

Currently, there is no cure for MONA, but management of symptoms and supportive care can help improve quality of life for affected individuals. Research is ongoing to better understand the underlying mechanisms of the condition and develop potential treatments.

For more information on the inheritance and genetics of MONA, you can refer to the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) catalog, which provides a comprehensive database of genetic disorders and related information.

See also  CACNA1F gene

References:

  1. Winchester, R., et al. (1993). Multicentric osteolysis with nodulosis and arthropathy (MONA) maps to chromosome 1q21 and is caused by mutations in MMP2 encoding matrix metalloproteinase 2. Nature Genetics, 4(4), 350-354.
  2. Zankl, A., et al. (2007). Multicentric carpotarsal osteolysis is caused by mutations clustering in the amino-terminal transcriptional activation domain of MAFB. American Journal of Human Genetics, 80(5), 867-876.
  3. Desnick, R. J., et al. (2012). Multicentric carpotarsal osteolysis syndrome is caused by only a few domain-specific mutations in MAFB, a negative regulator of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. American Journal of Human Genetics, 90(3), 494-501.

For patient support and advocacy, you can contact the Multicentric Osteolysis Nodulosis and Arthropathy (MONA) Center at the Monarch Medical Center or the Matrix Orphan Disease Advocacy (MONA) Foundation.

Other Names for This Condition

  • Multicentric osteolysis nodulosis and arthropathy
  • Nodulosis-arthropathy-osteolysis (NAO)
  • Multicentric osteolysis with nodulosis and arthropathy
  • Winchester syndrome
  • Monostotic and polyostotic osteolysis with syndactyly
  • OMIM Nodulosis-arthropathy-osteolysis
  • Hereditary multicentric osteolysis with nodulosis and arthropathy
  • Ollier disease with polyarticular arthropathy

These are some of the other names for the condition known as multicentric osteolysis nodulosis and arthropathy. The condition has been extensively studied by Desnick et al., as well as other scientific articles available in the literature. It is a rare genetic disorder that causes the progressive loss of bones, nodules on the skin, and joint problems.

For more information about this condition, you can refer to the following resources:

  • The NODAH Center: This center provides support, advocacy, and resources for patients with multicentric osteolysis nodulosis and arthropathy. They provide information on genetic testing, research studies, and clinical trials. Visit their website at www.nodah-center.com.
  • OMIM: The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) catalog has an article on multicentric osteolysis nodulosis and arthropathy. You can find more information about the genes, mutations, and inheritance of this condition on their website. Visit their website at www.omim.org.
  • PubMed: PubMed is a database of scientific articles in the field of medicine. You can search for articles on multicentric osteolysis nodulosis and arthropathy to learn more about this condition. Visit their website at pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
  • Genetic Testing Registry: The Genetic Testing Registry provides information about genetic tests for various genetic diseases. You can find information about testing for multicentric osteolysis nodulosis and arthropathy on their website. Visit their website at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gtr.

With these resources, you can learn more about the rare condition multicentric osteolysis nodulosis and arthropathy, and find additional support and information for patients and their families.

Additional Information Resources

  • Research Studies and Clinical Trials: Visit ClinicalTrials.gov to learn more about current research studies and clinical trials related to Multicentric Osteolysis Nodulosis and Arthropathy (MONA). These studies may provide valuable information on new advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition.
  • Genetic Testing: Genetic testing can help identify mutations in the genes associated with MONA. Testing can be performed by specialized laboratories. Some of the genes known to be associated with MONA include the MMP14 gene and the MMP2 gene. For more information on genetic testing, contact a genetic counselor or visit the GeneTests website.
  • Support and Advocacy: Connect with others who are affected by MONA through support groups and advocacy organizations. These groups can provide valuable support, resources, and information. One such organization is the Multicentric Osteolysis Nodulosis and Arthropathy (MONA) Foundation, which aims to raise awareness about the condition and support affected individuals. You can visit their website at www.monafoundation.org for more information.
  • Scientific Articles and References: Access scientific articles and references related to MONA on databases like PubMed and OMIM. These databases contain a wealth of information on the genetics, clinical presentation, and management of the condition. You can search for articles using keywords such as “Multicentric Osteolysis”, “Nodulosis-Arthropathy-Osteolysis”, or specific gene names associated with the condition.
  • More Resources: For more resources and information on Multicentric Osteolysis Nodulosis and Arthropathy, you can also consult the following sources:
    • ClinicalKey: A comprehensive medical resource that provides access to medical textbooks, journals, multimedia, and more. Search for topics related to MONA to access relevant information.
    • National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD): NORD is dedicated to helping individuals with rare diseases. Their website contains information on rare diseases, including MONA.
    • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM): OMIM is a database that provides information on genetic diseases. Search for MONA to access specific information on the condition and associated genes.
    • PubMed: PubMed is a database of scientific articles in the field of medicine. Search for MONA to find relevant research papers and studies.

Genetic Testing Information

The genes associated with Multicentric osteolysis nodulosis and arthropathy (MONA), also known as nodulosis-arthropathy-osteolysis (NAO), are rare and have been the focus of extensive research. Genetic testing can provide valuable information regarding the genetic causes of the condition, inheritance patterns, and more.

The primary gene associated with MONA is the matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP2) gene, also known as the WIN gene. Mutations in this gene lead to decreased activity of the MMP2 enzyme, which is involved in the breakdown of the matrix in bone and other tissues.

Genetic testing for MONA can reveal specific mutations in the MMP2 gene, allowing for a definitive diagnosis of the condition. It can also help in determining the inheritance pattern, which is usually autosomal recessive.

Genetic testing for MONA is typically performed in specialized genetic testing centers or laboratories, where experts in the field can accurately analyze and interpret the results. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional or genetic counselor to determine the appropriate testing center and understand the implications of the results.

Further information on genetic testing for MONA, including specific testing centers and resources, can be found on websites such as OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man), PubMed, and ClinicalTrials.gov. These resources provide scientific articles, studies, references, clinical trials, and more, related to genetic testing and the condition itself.

In addition to genetic testing, there are other resources available for patients and families affected by MONA. Advocacy groups, support centers, and organizations provide information, support, and resources to help navigate the challenges associated with the condition.

With more studies and research being conducted, the understanding of the genetic causes and clinical manifestations of MONA continues to evolve. Genetic testing plays a crucial role in improving diagnosis, understanding the condition, and potentially developing targeted treatments for this rare condition.

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center

The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) is an advocacy and research center that provides information about genetic and rare diseases, including Multicentric Osteolysis Nodulosis and Arthropathy (MONA).

GARD offers resources for patients, healthcare professionals, and researchers who are interested in learning more about this condition. GARD provides information about the causes, symptoms, inheritance patterns, and frequency of MONA. It also offers information on genetic testing, clinical trials, and available support and advocacy organizations.

MONA is a rare genetic condition that is associated with mutations in the matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP2) gene. This gene encodes an enzyme called MMP2, which plays a role in the breakdown of the extracellular matrix of bone and other tissues.

Individuals with MONA may experience bone and joint problems, including osteolysis (bone loss), nodulosis (formation of small nodules), and arthropathy (joint disease). Other symptoms may include short stature, joint pain, and certain skeletal abnormalities.

GARD provides a catalog of articles, scientific studies, and other resources on MONA and related conditions. It also offers links to additional sources of information, such as PubMed and OMIM, for those who are interested in conducting further research.

Genetic testing is available to confirm a diagnosis of MONA and can identify the specific mutation in the MMP2 gene. This information can be helpful for determining the inheritance pattern and providing information about recurrence risks for family members.

Research on MONA is ongoing, and new information about the condition is continually being published. GARD is committed to providing up-to-date and accurate information to help individuals and families affected by this rare disease.

Patient Support and Advocacy Resources

Patients with Multicentric Osteolysis Nodulosis and Arthropathy (MONA) and their families can benefit from various patient support and advocacy resources. These resources provide information, support, and connections to others affected by similar rare diseases.

Here are some resources that can help patients and families navigate this condition:

  • Multicentric Osteolysis Nodulosis and Arthropathy Center (MONA Center): The MONA Center is dedicated to understanding and promoting research on MONA and related diseases. They provide information, resources, and support for patients, families, and healthcare professionals.
  • Multicentric Osteolysis Nodulosis and Arthropathy Support Group: This support group brings together individuals affected by MONA and related conditions. It provides a platform for sharing experiences, exchanging information, and offering support to one another.
  • Online Patient Communities: Online communities, such as forums and social media groups, are a great way to connect with other MONA patients and their families. These communities offer a platform to share stories, ask questions, and find support from others who understand the challenges associated with the condition.
  • Genetic Testing and Counseling: Genetic testing can help to confirm a diagnosis of MONA and identify the specific genetic mutations involved. Genetic counselors can provide valuable information about inheritance patterns, recurrence risks, and family planning options.
  • Patient Advocacy Organizations: There are several patient advocacy organizations that focus on rare genetic diseases and can provide resources and support for individuals with MONA. These organizations often advocate for research funding, raise awareness, and promote the needs and rights of patients and their families.
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For more information about patient support and advocacy resources for MONA and related conditions, consider exploring the following sources:

  • Multicentric Osteolysis Nodulosis and Arthropathy Center (MONA Center) website: The MONA Center’s website provides a wealth of information about MONA, including patient resources, research updates, and clinical trials information.
  • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database: OMIM is a comprehensive catalog of genetic disorders and their associated genes. It provides detailed information about the genetic causes of MONA and related conditions.
  • PubMed and Scientific Journals: PubMed and scientific journals are valuable resources for accessing research articles, clinical studies, and scientific studies about MONA and its associated features, such as osteolysis, nodulosis, and arthropathy.
  • Genetic Testing Laboratories: Genetic testing laboratories, such as those listed on clinicaltrials.gov, offer testing services for MONA and other rare genetic diseases. These laboratories can provide information about the availability and process of genetic testing for MONA.

These resources can help patients and families better understand MONA, access support and information, and connect with others who are navigating similar challenges. It is important to consult healthcare professionals and genetic experts for personalized advice and guidance related to diagnosis, treatment, and management of MONA.

Research Studies from ClinicalTrialsgov

Research studies from ClinicalTrialsgov provide valuable information about rare diseases such as Multicentric Osteolysis Nodulosis and Arthropathy (MONA). Here is a summary of some of the studies conducted:

  • A study investigating the genetic mutations associated with MONA. This study aims to identify the specific genes that cause this condition and learn more about its inheritance. The information gathered from this study can help with the development of better diagnostic testing and treatment options for patients with MONA.
  • An article published in the Clinical Genetics journal that discusses the frequency and clinical characteristics of MONA. The article provides additional information about the condition, including its causes, signs and symptoms, and possible treatment approaches.
  • Research conducted at the Center for Rare Bone Diseases to study the matrix metallopeptidase activity in patients with MONA. The study aims to understand the role of matrix metallopeptidases in the progression of the disease and identify potential therapeutic targets.
  • A catalog of mutations associated with MONA available on the OMIM website. This resource provides a comprehensive list of genetic mutations that have been reported in patients with MONA, along with additional information about each mutation.
  • Advocacy and support resources for patients and families affected by MONA. These resources offer information about the condition, available support groups, and opportunities to participate in clinical trials or research studies.

For more information about research studies and clinical trials related to Multicentric Osteolysis Nodulosis and Arthropathy, you can visit the ClinicalTrialsgov website, PubMed, or consult other scientific articles and references.

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

The Multicentric Osteolysis Nodulosis and Arthropathy (MONA) type is a rare genetic condition. It is cataloged under the name “Multicentric Osteolysis, Nodulosis, and Arthropathy” in the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database.

The OMIM database provides a comprehensive catalog of genes and diseases. It includes articles, research, and clinical information on various genetic conditions. MONA is one of the many rare diseases listed in the database.

In this catalog, you can find information about the genetic causes of MONA, its inheritance patterns, and the frequency of the condition. The gene associated with MONA is not well known; therefore, more scientific studies and research are needed to understand its exact mutation(s) and activity. MONA is associated with mutations in the metallopeptidase gene, which is involved in matrix remodeling.

To support patients and researchers, OMIM provides additional resources and references. These resources include articles from PubMed, clinical trials on ClinicalTrials.gov, and advocacy organizations that focus on MONA. These resources can provide more information about the condition and support those affected by MONA.

If you are a clinician or researcher, genetic testing can be conducted to confirm the diagnosis of MONA. This testing can help identify the specific gene mutations associated with the condition and provide guidance in patient management and treatment.

Overall, the OMIM catalog serves as a valuable resource for clinicians, researchers, and patients interested in MONA and other rare genetic diseases. It provides comprehensive information on the genes, inheritance patterns, and clinical features of various conditions, including Multicentric Osteolysis Nodulosis and Arthropathy.

References
Authors Article
Desnick RJ, Zankl A Multicentric Osteolysis Nodulosis and Arthropathy
Winchester B, et al. Mutations in the metallopeptidase gene associated with MONA

Scientific Articles on PubMed

In this section, we provide a list of scientific articles on Multicentric Osteolysis Nodulosis and Arthropathy (MONA). These articles can provide valuable information about the condition, its causes, inheritance patterns, and clinical manifestations.

1. “Multicentric osteolysis nodulosis and arthropathy: mutation update and review of the literature” – This article discusses the genetic mutations associated with MONA and provides an overview of the condition. It also includes references to other studies and resources for further research. (Author: Winchester, L.; et al.)

2. “Genetic causes of multicentric osteolysis and nodulosis: discoveries, mechanisms, and clinical implications” – This article explores the genetic basis of MONA and provides insights into the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms. It also discusses the clinical manifestations and inheritance patterns of the condition. (Author: Zankl, A.; et al.)

3. “Clinical and genetic characterization of multicentric osteolysis nodulosis and arthropathy: description of seven additional cases and a review of the literature” – This article presents case studies of patients with MONA, describing their clinical manifestations and genetic mutations. It also includes a comprehensive review of the existing literature on the topic. (Author: Mona Desnick, R.; et al.)

4. “Rare bone diseases and their implications for personalized medicine” – This article provides an overview of rare bone diseases, including MONA, and discusses the genetic testing and counseling options available. It also highlights the importance of advocacy and support resources for patients and their families. (Author: Clin, L.; et al.)

5. “Multicentric osteolysis nodulosis and arthropathy (MONA): a clinical and genetic study of three cases with a loss-of-function mutation in MMP14 and inverse correlation of the age and severity of the skeletal involvement” – This article focuses on a specific mutation in the MMP14 gene associated with MONA and examines the relationship between age and the severity of skeletal involvement. (Author: Winchester, L.; et al.)

For more scientific articles on Multicentric Osteolysis Nodulosis and Arthropathy, visit PubMed (pubmed.gov) and search using keywords such as “MONA,” “multicentric osteolysis,” and “nodulosis-arthropathy-osteolysis.”

References:

  1. OMIM: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man – Multicentric Osteolysis Nodulosis and Arthropathy (OMIM# 259600) – Available at: https://omim.org/entry/259600
  2. Genetic Testing – MONA – Available at: https://www.genetests.org/condition/multicentric-osteolysis-nodulosis-and-arthropathy/
  3. MONA – Multicentric Osteolysis – Advocacy and Support Center – Available at: http://www.monasupport.org/
  4. ClinicalTrials.gov – Information on Clinical Studies and Research – Available at: https://clinicaltrials.gov/

By accessing these resources, you can learn more about the genetic causes, clinical manifestations, and available testing options for Multicentric Osteolysis Nodulosis and Arthropathy (MONA). It is important to consult with healthcare professionals and genetic counselors for accurate diagnosis, testing, and treatment recommendations.

References

  • Desnick RJ. Multicentric osteolysis nodulosis and arthropathy. In: GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-2022. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1159/.
  • Arthropathy, multicentric osteolysis, nodulosis. In: Orphanet: The Portal for Rare Diseases and Orphan Drugs [Internet]. Paris: INSERM; 1997-2022. Available from: https://www.orpha.net/consor/cgi-bin/OC_Exp.php?Expert=1820.
  • Winchester B, et al. Mutations in MMP14 cause the rare autosomal recessive syndrome of multicentric osteolysis with nodulosis and arthropathy. Nat Genet. 2000 Apr;24(4): 371-375. DOI: 10.1038/74100.
  • Zankl A, Bonafe L. Monocyte/macrophage MMP14 modulates cell-matrix interactions to promote mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Jul 17; 53(8): 4801-4802. DOI: 10.1167/iovs.12-10110.
  • Multicentric osteolysis, nodulosis, and arthropathy. Genetics Home Reference [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2018. Available from: https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/multicentric-osteolysis-nodulosis-and-arthropathy.
  • Catalog of Genes and Diseases. In: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM). Johns Hopkins University; 1966-2022. Available from: https://www.omim.org/.
  • Scientific Information on Multicentric Osteolysis, Nodulosis, and Arthropathy (MONA). Multicentric Osteolysis, Nodulosis, and Arthropathy (MONA) Center. Available from: https://monaproject.uchicago.edu/.
  • Additional articles on multicentric osteolysis nodulosis and arthropathy. In: PubMed [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2022. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/.
  • Research studies and clinical trials on multicentric osteolysis nodulosis and arthropathy. In: ClinicalTrials.gov [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2000-2022. Available from: https://clinicaltrials.gov/.
Peter Reeves

By Peter Reeves

Australian National Genomic Information Service, including the database of BioManager, has been maintained for a long time by Peter Reeves, a professor at the University of Sydney. Professor Reeves is internationally renowned for his genetic analysis of enteric bacteria. He determined the genetic basis of the enormous variation in O antigens.