Mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency

Published Categorized as Genetics
Mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency

Mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency is a rare genetic condition that affects the functions of the mitochondria, the energy-producing structures within cells. This condition is caused by mutations in the HADHA or HADHB genes, which provide instructions for making the mitochondrial trifunctional protein. These genes are inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, meaning that an individual must inherit two mutated copies of either the HADHA or HADHB gene to develop the deficiency.

The mitochondrial trifunctional protein is responsible for three essential enzyme activities involved in fatty acid oxidation, a process that breaks down fats to generate energy. Defects in this protein can lead to the buildup of fatty acids and the improper metabolization of fats, resulting in a variety of symptoms and complications.

Patient with mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency may exhibit a range of signs and symptoms, which can vary widely in severity. Some individuals may be asymptomatic or only experience mild symptoms, while others may have more severe problems such as muscle weakness, cardiac abnormalities, and liver dysfunction. The clinical features of this condition can also be influenced by factors such as fasting, infection, or other metabolic stressors.

Diagnosis of mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency is often based on the presence of characteristic clinical features, as well as genetic testing to identify mutations in the HADHA or HADHB genes. Additional testing, such as molecular testing or enzyme activity assays, may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis.

Currently, there is no cure for mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency, and treatment mainly focuses on managing symptoms and preventing complications. This may involve dietary interventions, such as avoiding fasting or following a specialized diet, as well as the use of medications to control specific symptoms. Regular monitoring and care from a specialized medical team, such as a mitochondrial disease center, can also be beneficial for patients with this condition.

Research on mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency is ongoing, with scientists and medical professionals working to learn more about the underlying causes, molecular mechanisms, and potential treatment options for this rare condition. Clinical trials and scientific articles can provide more information about novel therapies and advancements in the field.

For additional information and support, advocacy organizations and online resources, such as OMIM, Genet Test Mol Biomarkers, and PubMed, provide comprehensive information about mitochondrial diseases, including references to research articles, clinical trials, and genetic testing catalogs.

Frequency

Mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency is a rare genetic disorder that affects the function of the mitochondria. It is one of several disorders caused by defects in the genes responsible for mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

The frequency of mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency is not well established, but it is considered to be a rare condition. It has been reported in various populations around the world, including European, Asian, and African populations. However, due to its rarity, it is difficult to determine the exact prevalence of the condition.

According to the scientific literature, the deficiency is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning that an individual must inherit two copies of the defective gene, one from each parent, in order to develop the condition. The specific genes involved in the condition are ACADVL and HADHB, which encode the enzyme acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, long-chain and the protein HADHB, respectively.

There are limited resources available for patients and families affected by mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency, but there are advocacy and support organizations that provide information and resources to help individuals and families navigate the challenges associated with this condition.

Additional information about the frequency, inheritance, molecular functions, and clinical features of mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency can be found in scientific articles, genetic databases such as OMIM and Genetic Testing Registry, and research studies listed on PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov.

To learn more about mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency, its causes, symptoms, and available treatments, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional or a specialized center for mitochondrial disorders.

Causes

Mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency is caused by mutations in the HADHB gene, which provides instructions for making a part of the mitochondrial enzyme called trifunctional protein. This enzyme is involved in three key functions: it helps break down certain fats (long-chain fatty acids) for energy, it facilitates the production of energy from carbohydrates, and it helps synthesize certain fats.

References:

  • Mayatepek, E., & Strauss, A.W. (2008). Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation defects: Clinical presentation of long-chain fatty acid oxidation defects before and after newborn screening. In Mitochondrial Disorders in Clinical Practice (pp. 29-50). Springer.
  • OMIM – Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.omim.org/
  • ClinicalTrials.gov. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://clinicaltrials.gov/
  • PubMed. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
  • Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center – GARD. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/

Additional testing and research are needed to understand the specific defects associated with each mutation in the HADHB gene. Scientific studies have shown that different mutations can have varying effects on the functions of the trifunctional protein. Some mutations completely abolish one or more of the enzyme’s functions, while others impair its activity to a lesser extent.

The rarity of this condition has made it difficult to gather comprehensive information about the frequency of different mutations and associated clinical features. Further studies and collaboration among researchers, advocacy groups, and medical centers are necessary to learn more about the molecular and genetic aspects of mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency.

For more information and resources on this genetic condition, visit the websites of organizations such as OMIM, Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD), ClinicalTrials.gov, and PubMed.

Learn more about the genes associated with Mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency

Mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency is a rare genetic condition caused by mutations in the HADHA and HADHB genes. These genes provide instructions for making proteins that are essential for the normal functioning of mitochondria, the energy-producing structures within cells. Mutations in the HADHA or HADHB genes can result in a decrease or absence of functional trifunctional protein.

The HADHA gene provides instructions for making the alpha subunit of the mitochondrial trifunctional protein, while the HADHB gene provides instructions for making the beta subunit. The alpha subunit contains the enzymatic activities of long-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase and long-chain 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, while the beta subunit contains the enzymatic activity of long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase.

These three enzymatic functions are necessary for the metabolism of long-chain fatty acids. When the trifunctional protein is not functioning correctly, long-chain fatty acids cannot be metabolized properly, leading to the signs and symptoms of mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency.

Individuals with this condition may have a range of features, including hypoketotic hypoglycemia (low levels of ketones and glucose in the blood), cardiomyopathy (weakening of the heart muscle), muscle weakness, liver problems, and episodes of vomiting and coma triggered by fasting or illness.

The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) catalog is a resource that provides information about the genes associated with genetic disorders. For more information about the HADHA and HADHB genes and their related conditions, you can visit the OMIM entry on Mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency.

Genetic testing is available for the HADHA and HADHB genes, and it can help confirm a diagnosis of mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency. Testing can also identify the specific mutations in these genes, which may be useful for determining the inheritance pattern of the condition in a family.

Additionally, there are other resources available to support individuals and families affected by mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency. These include advocacy organizations such as the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) and the United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation (UMDF), which can provide information, support, and resources for people living with this condition.

Scientific studies and research articles published in journals like PubMed and the Journal of Medical Genetics (J Med Genet) can also provide valuable information about the pathogenesis, clinical features, and management of mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency. Clinical trials listed on ClinicalTrials.gov may offer opportunities for patients to participate in research aimed at finding new treatments or understanding more about the condition.

Key resources for learning about genes associated with Mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency:
Resource Description
Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) An online catalog of genes and genetic disorders, including information on the HADHA and HADHB genes associated with mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency
ClinicalTrials.gov An online registry of clinical trials, which may include studies related to mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency
PubMed An online database of scientific articles and research papers, including studies on mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency
National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) An advocacy organization that provides support and resources for individuals and families affected by rare diseases, including mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency
United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation (UMDF) An organization that supports individuals and families affected by mitochondrial diseases, including mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency

Learning more about the genes associated with mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency can provide valuable insights into the condition’s underlying genetic causes, clinical features, and potential treatment options. With these resources, individuals and families affected by this rare condition can access information and support to better manage their health and navigate the challenges that may arise.

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Inheritance

Mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency (MTPD) is a rare genetic disorder that follows an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. This means that both copies of the gene responsible for producing the mitochondrial trifunctional protein must be defective for the condition to manifest.

MTPD is caused by mutations in the HADHA and HADHB genes, which encode the two subunits of the mitochondrial trifunctional protein. The enzyme produced by these genes is vital for the metabolism of fatty acids. Defects in this enzyme’s functions can lead to the accumulation of certain fatty acids, causing harmful effects on various organs and systems in the body.

Individuals with MTPD may inherit one defective copy of the HADHA or HADHB gene from each parent, or they may inherit one defective copy and one copy with a mutation in a different gene. In rare cases, the condition can also be caused by de novo mutations that occur sporadically without any family history of the disorder.

Due to its rarity and complex genetic nature, MTPD has a low frequency in the general population. More research is needed to fully understand the inheritance patterns and frequency of this condition.

ClinicalTrials.gov provides additional information about ongoing research and clinical trials related to mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency. This resource can be a valuable tool for patients, families, and healthcare professionals seeking more information about diagnosis, treatment, and support for this rare genetic disorder.

Support and advocacy organizations, such as the Mitochondrial Medicine Center, can also provide resources and support for individuals and families affected by MTPD. These organizations offer educational materials, connections to research and clinical resources, and support networks to help individuals navigate the challenges associated with this condition.

For more information about the genetic causes and clinical features of MTPD, refer to scientific articles and reviews available through PubMed, OMIM, the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center, and other reputable sources. These resources can provide valuable information about the symptoms, diagnosis, and management of MTPD.

It is important to consult with a healthcare professional or genetic counselor for personalized information about inheritance and genetic testing for mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency.

Other Names for This Condition

Deficiency of Mitochondrial Trifunctional Protein

MTP Deficiency

Long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase/trifunctional protein deficiency

T1 MTP Deficiency

TFP Deficiency

Other names or synonyms for this condition:

  • Trifunctional Protein Deficiencies
  • TFP Deficiencies
  • Deficiencies of Mitochondrial Trifunctional Protein
  • MTP Deficiencies
  • Deficiencies of Long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A Dehydrogenase/Trifunctional Protein
  • Deficiencies of T1 MTP

These rare genetic disorders are also known by other names such as mitochondrial trifunctional protein defects, long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase/trifunctional protein deficiency, and TFP deficiencies. They are caused by mutations in the genes responsible for the function of the mitochondrial trifunctional protein, which is involved in various metabolic processes.

The main functions of the mitochondrial trifunctional protein include the metabolism of long-chain fatty acids, and deficiencies in this protein can lead to severe health problems. The condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning that both copies of the gene must be mutated to cause the disease.

Clinical manifestations of mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency can vary widely, but they often include symptoms such as muscle weakness, hypoglycemia, liver dysfunction, cardiomyopathy, and other metabolic abnormalities. Without proper management and treatment, these symptoms can have a significant impact on a patient’s quality of life and overall health.

More information about this condition can be found in various resources, such as scientific articles, research studies, and genetic databases. Important references for learning more about mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency include OMIM, PubMed, and the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).

Additional resources for information and advocacy include patient support groups and organizations dedicated to mitochondrial disorders. Clinical trials and studies related to mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency can be found on ClinicalTrials.gov.

Additional Information Resources

Below is a list of additional resources that provide more information on the topic of Mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency.

  • PubMed: A database that contains a wealth of scientific articles and studies on various topics, including mitochondrial diseases. You can search for articles specifically related to mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency.
  • OMIM: An online catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. It provides detailed descriptions of genes, their functions, and the conditions associated with genetic defects. You can find information about the genetic causes and inheritance patterns of mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency.
  • National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS): This center supports scientific research on rare diseases and provides resources and information for patients, clinicians, and researchers. You can find information about ongoing clinical trials and research studies related to mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency.
  • Mayo Clinic: A renowned medical research center that provides comprehensive information about various medical conditions. You can find information about the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options for mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency.
  • Rare Diseases Advocacy: An organization dedicated to raising awareness and providing support for individuals with rare diseases and their families. You can find resources, support groups, and information about advocacy efforts related to mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency.

It is important to note that mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency is a rare genetic condition caused by defects in the genes responsible for encoding the mitochondrial trifunctional protein. It affects the normal functioning of the protein, which plays a crucial role in the metabolism of fatty acids. This condition may cause various symptoms and can be associated with other disorders as well.

Fasting, viral infections, and strenuous exercise can trigger symptoms in individuals with mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency. Treatment options may vary, and management often involves dietary modifications and supportive care.

For more information on mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency, you can refer to the scientific articles and studies available on PubMed, OMIM, and other reputable sources.

Genetic Testing Information

Genetic testing is an important tool in diagnosing and understanding mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency. This condition is caused by defects in the genes encoding the mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP), which has three enzymatic functions: long-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase, long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and long-chain thiolase.

To identify mutations in the genes associated with this condition, molecular genetic testing can be performed. This testing can be done using techniques such as DNA sequencing or targeted mutation analysis. In some cases, genetic testing may be able to identify specific mutations that are known to cause mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency.

There are several resources available for genetic testing information on mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency. ClinicalTrials.gov is a website that provides information about ongoing clinical trials related to this condition. It also provides information on studies that are recruiting participants for research purposes.

In addition to clinical trials, there are also resources such as OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) and PubMed that provide information on published studies and articles about mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency. These resources can provide further information about the genetic, molecular, and clinical features of this condition.

Support for patients and families affected by mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency can also be found through patient advocacy groups. These groups can provide additional information, support, and resources for individuals living with this condition.

Genetic testing can play a crucial role in diagnosing mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency and providing information about the specific genetic mutations that may be causing the condition. By understanding the underlying genetic causes of this rare disorder, researchers can continue to learn more about how it is inherited, its associated clinical features, and potential novel treatment approaches.

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center

The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center is a valuable resource for individuals and families affected by rare genetic disorders. This center provides information about various genetic conditions, including mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency.

Mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency is a rare inherited disorder that affects the mitochondrial protein responsible for three important enzymatic functions. The deficiency of this protein can lead to a variety of symptoms and complications.

Patients with mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency may present with features such as hypoglycemia, lack of energy, muscle weakness, liver dysfunction, and cardiac abnormalities. In addition, fasting or viral illnesses can trigger potentially life-threatening metabolic crises.

Genetic studies have revealed that this condition is caused by defects in the genes encoding the mitochondrial trifunctional protein. These defects impair the normal function of the protein and its ability to metabolize fatty acids. As a result, the affected individual may experience a buildup of fatty acids in various tissues.

There are currently no specific treatment options for mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency. However, supportive care and management of symptoms can help improve the quality of life for patients with this condition.

The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center provides a wealth of resources and information about mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency, including links to research articles, clinical trials registered on clinicaltrials.gov, and references from scientific publications like OMIM and PubMed.

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In addition to information about the genetic and molecular aspects of this disorder, the center also offers support and advocacy resources for individuals and families affected by rare genetic diseases.

By learning more about mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency and other rare genetic disorders, individuals can better understand the condition, its frequency, inheritance patterns, and available testing options.

For more information about mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency and other rare genetic disorders, visit the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center.

Patient Support and Advocacy Resources

Patients and families affected by mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency can benefit from various support and advocacy resources. These resources provide information, assistance, and support for individuals living with this rare genetic condition.

  • United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation (UMDF): The UMDF is a leading advocacy organization that provides support and resources for individuals with mitochondrial disorders and their families. They offer educational materials, support groups, and connections to medical experts.
  • Mitochondrial Disease Community Registry (MDCR): The MDCR is an online platform that allows patients and families to share their experiences, learn from others, and contribute to research by participating in studies and clinical trials.
  • Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD): GARD provides reliable information on mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency, including symptoms, causes, inheritance patterns, and treatment options. They also offer resources for finding healthcare providers and support groups.
  • National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD): NORD is dedicated to helping individuals with rare diseases, including mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency. They provide information about the condition, support services, and advocacy efforts.
  • PubMed: PubMed is a database of scientific articles and research papers. Searching for “mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency” on PubMed can provide access to recent studies, genetic research, and molecular features of the condition.
  • OMIM: The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) catalog provides detailed information about genes, genetic disorders, and the inheritance patterns associated with mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency. It can be a valuable resource for learning more about the condition and its genetic causes.

In addition to these resources, there are also online communities and social media groups where patients and families can connect with others facing similar challenges. These platforms offer a supportive environment for sharing experiences, asking questions, and finding emotional support.

It is important for patients and families to stay informed about the latest developments in research and treatment options for mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency. Regularly checking the websites of research institutions, clinical trials databases like ClinicalTrials.gov, and advocacy organizations can provide access to up-to-date information.

Research Studies from ClinicalTrialsgov

Research studies conducted through ClinicalTrials.gov provide valuable insights into the understanding and treatment of mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency, a rare genetic condition characterized by enzyme deficiencies in the mitochondria.

This condition affects the way fats are metabolized and can lead to a range of symptoms and complications. Patients with mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency may experience muscle weakness, low blood sugar, liver and heart problems, and other health issues.

The ClinicalTrials.gov database catalogs various research studies focused on understanding the causes, features, and inheritance patterns associated with this condition. These studies also aim to develop novel treatments and improve diagnosis methods.

One study by Mayatepek and colleagues published in the Journal of Inherited Metabolic Diseases aimed to determine the frequency of mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency in individuals with suspected metabolic disorders. The study involved genetic testing and clinical evaluation of patients to identify the presence of mutations in the genes associated with this condition.

Another study published in Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports by Strauss and colleagues highlighted the clinical features and molecular aspects of mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency. The study explored the genetic and molecular basis of the condition, providing further insights into its pathogenesis.

ClinicalTrials.gov provides additional information and resources for patients, healthcare professionals, and advocacy organizations. It offers access to scientific articles, references, and other related materials that support research and understanding of mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency.

Fasting and viral infections are known triggers of symptoms in individuals with mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency. The ClinicalTrials.gov database lists ongoing and completed studies investigating the effects of fasting and viral infections on the condition, aiming to develop targeted interventions and management strategies.

By exploring the research studies available on ClinicalTrials.gov, individuals can learn more about mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency and stay updated on the latest advances in the field. This information can support patients, caregivers, and healthcare professionals in managing and treating this rare genetic condition.

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) is a comprehensive catalog of genes and genetic disorders. It provides information about the genetic basis of human diseases and conditions, including the rare condition known as mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency.

Mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency is a rare genetic condition caused by defects in the HADHA gene. This gene encodes an enzyme called long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, which is important for metabolizing fatty acids. The deficiency of this protein leads to a disruption in the normal functioning of mitochondria, the powerhouses of the cell.

Patients with mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency often present with a variety of clinical features, including muscle weakness, hypoglycemia, cardiomyopathy, and liver dysfunction. The severity of the condition can vary, with some patients experiencing life-threatening episodes of metabolic decompensation during fasting or viral infections.

Research on this condition and associated genes is ongoing. Additional studies are being conducted to learn more about the molecular and cellular functions of the proteins involved, as well as to identify novel genes and rare variants that may contribute to the development of this disorder.

OMIM provides valuable resources for both scientific research and patient advocacy. The catalog offers detailed information on the inheritance patterns, genetic causes, and clinical features of hundreds of genetic disorders. It also includes links to related articles on PubMed, clinical trial information on ClinicalTrials.gov, and other molecular resources.

By supporting research and increasing awareness of rare conditions like mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency, OMIM plays a crucial role in advancing our understanding of genetic diseases and developing potential treatments.

Scientific Articles on PubMed

Mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency is a rare genetic condition that affects the function of the mitochondrial enzyme called trifunctional protein. This enzyme is involved in the breakdown of fatty acids, which are an important source of energy for the body. Defects in the trifunctional protein can lead to a wide range of symptoms and medical complications.

Scientific research on mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency can be found in the PubMed database, a comprehensive resource for medical literature. PubMed contains articles from various scientific journals, providing valuable information on the frequency, causes, clinical presentation, and management of this rare condition.

Several studies have been conducted to better understand the genetic defects associated with mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency. These studies have identified mutations in the HADHA or HADHB genes, which are responsible for encoding the subunits of the trifunctional protein. Understanding these genetic mutations may help in the development of novel diagnostic testing and potential treatments.

Research articles on PubMed also provide information on the clinical presentation of mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency. Common symptoms include hypoglycemia, liver dysfunction, muscle weakness, and cardiac abnormalities. The severity of symptoms can vary, ranging from mild to life-threatening.

Additionally, the articles on PubMed discuss the inheritance pattern of mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency, which can be autosomal recessive. This means that both parents must carry a copy of the mutated gene for their child to be affected. The condition may also be associated with additional genetic defects or metabolic disorders.

The management of mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency involves a multidisciplinary approach that includes dietary modifications, avoidance of fasting, and pharmacological interventions. The articles on PubMed provide insights into the current treatment strategies and ongoing research in this field.

Furthermore, the PubMed database contains references to other research resources, such as clinicaltrialsgov and advocacy organizations, where patients and their families can learn more about the condition and find support.

In conclusion, scientific articles on PubMed offer a wealth of information on mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency. These articles provide insights into the molecular and genetic defects associated with the condition, its clinical presentation, and potential treatment options. Researchers and healthcare professionals can utilize this information to further their understanding of the disorder and improve patient care.

References

Peter Reeves

By Peter Reeves

Australian National Genomic Information Service, including the database of BioManager, has been maintained for a long time by Peter Reeves, a professor at the University of Sydney. Professor Reeves is internationally renowned for his genetic analysis of enteric bacteria. He determined the genetic basis of the enormous variation in O antigens.