Gilbert syndrome

Published Categorized as Genetics
Gilbert syndrome

Gilbert syndrome, also known as Gilbert’s syndrome or Gilbert’s disease, is a genetic condition that affects the liver’s ability to process bilirubin. Bilirubin is a yellow pigment that is produced when red blood cells break down. Normally, the liver filters out bilirubin and excretes it in the stool. However, in individuals with Gilbert syndrome, the liver does not process bilirubin properly, resulting in elevated levels of unconjugated (indirect) bilirubin in the blood.

When bilirubin levels are elevated, a person may develop jaundice, which is a yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes. However, in most cases of Gilbert syndrome, jaundice is mild or absent. The condition is usually detected incidentally during routine blood testing, when bilirubin levels are found to be slightly elevated.

Gilbert syndrome is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning that an individual must inherit two copies of the mutated gene in order to develop the condition. The responsible gene for Gilbert syndrome is UGT1A1, which encodes for the enzyme bilirubin-UGT (uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase). Mutations in this gene result in impaired function of the enzyme, leading to elevated levels of unconjugated bilirubin in the blood.

Though Gilbert syndrome is a relatively common condition, with a prevalence of approximately 3-7 percent in the general population, it is often underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed due to its mild and variable symptoms. The majority of individuals with Gilbert syndrome have no symptoms or experience sporadic episodes of jaundice that are usually triggered by factors such as fasting, stress, illness, or certain medications.

There is no specific treatment for Gilbert syndrome, as the condition is generally benign and does not cause long-term liver damage. Management involves avoiding triggers that may cause bilirubin levels to rise, such as fasting and certain medications. It is important for individuals with Gilbert syndrome to communicate their diagnosis to healthcare providers and to be aware of potential drug interactions.

In conclusion, Gilbert syndrome is a relatively common genetic condition that affects the liver’s processing of bilirubin. Though the condition is generally benign, it is important for individuals with Gilbert syndrome to have a proper diagnosis in order to avoid unnecessary testing and to provide appropriate medical care. Additional research and advocacy efforts are needed to increase awareness and understanding of this condition among healthcare professionals and the general public.

Frequency

Gilbert syndrome is a rare genetic condition that affects the function of the liver. It is estimated to occur in about 3-7 percent of the population, although the exact frequency may vary depending on the geographic region.

The syndrome is named after French gastroenterologist Augustin Nicolas Gilbert, who first described it in 1901. It is sometimes referred to as constitutional hepatic dysfunction or familial nonhemolytic jaundice.

Gilbert syndrome is caused by mutations in the UGT1A1 gene, which is responsible for producing an enzyme called UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1. This enzyme helps convert bilirubin, a waste product of red blood cells, into a form that can be eliminated from the body. In Gilbert syndrome, these mutations result in impaired function of the enzyme, leading to elevated levels of unconjugated bilirubin in the blood.

The inheritance pattern of Gilbert syndrome is autosomal recessive, which means that both copies of the UGT1A1 gene must be mutated in order for the syndrome to be present. However, many people with the condition have only one mutated gene and are referred to as “Gilberts”.

Most individuals with Gilbert syndrome do not experience any symptoms and are diagnosed incidentally when routine blood tests reveal elevated bilirubin levels. However, some patients may experience episodic jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes) during times of stress, fasting, or illness. These episodes are usually self-limiting and resolve without treatment.

There is no specific treatment for Gilbert syndrome, as it is considered a benign condition. Management typically involves avoiding certain triggers, such as fasting or certain medications that can increase bilirubin levels. It is important for individuals with Gilbert syndrome to communicate their condition to healthcare professionals and to undergo genetic testing if necessary.

For additional scientific information on Gilbert syndrome, you can refer to resources such as OMIM – Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (https://www.omim.org/), PubMed (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/), and Genetic Testing Registry (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gtr/).

There are also advocacy organizations, such as the Gilbert’s Syndrome Support Center (https://gilbertssyndrome.org/), that provide support and information for patients and their families.

Research on the causes and treatment of Gilbert syndrome is ongoing. ClinicalTrials.gov (https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/) is a useful resource for finding clinical trials that may be evaluating new treatments or interventions for this condition.

Causes

The exact cause of Gilbert syndrome is not fully understood, but it is known to be a genetic condition. It is caused by mutations in the UGT1A1 gene, which is responsible for the function of an enzyme called UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 family, polypeptide A1 (UGT1A1). This enzyme helps to break down bilirubin, a yellow pigment that is produced when red blood cells are broken down.

Individuals with Gilbert syndrome have impaired UGT1A1 function, which leads to a buildup of unconjugated bilirubin in the body. This buildup can cause a yellowing of the skin and eyes, known as jaundice.

Gilbert syndrome is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, which means that an individual must inherit two copies of the mutated UGT1A1 gene, one from each parent, in order to develop the condition. If an individual only inherits one copy of the mutated gene, they are considered a carrier and usually do not experience any symptoms of Gilbert syndrome.

Research studies have shown that the frequency of UGT1A1 gene mutations in individuals with Gilbert syndrome is about 30 to 40 percent. The exact prevalence of the condition in the general population is unknown, but it is estimated to affect about 3 to 12 percent of people worldwide.

Testing for Gilbert syndrome can be done through a blood test that measures levels of bilirubin in the blood. A diagnosis of Gilbert syndrome can be confirmed if the bilirubin levels are elevated and other causes of jaundice have been ruled out.

There is ongoing scientific research on Gilbert syndrome and its underlying genetic causes. Studies have identified additional genes that may be associated with the condition, as well as factors that can trigger episodes of jaundice in individuals with Gilbert syndrome.

Advocacy organizations and support groups, such as the Gilbert’s Syndrome Support Group, provide resources and information for patients and their families to learn more about the causes and management of Gilbert syndrome.

For more information on the causes of Gilbert syndrome, you can refer to the following resources:

  • PubMed: A database of scientific articles that contains information on the latest research studies on Gilbert syndrome and its causes.
  • OMIM: An online catalog of human genes and genetic disorders that provides detailed information on the UGT1A1 gene and Gilbert syndrome.
  • ClinicalTrials.gov: A database of clinical trials that is constantly updated with new studies on various diseases and conditions, including Gilbert syndrome.

Learn more about the gene associated with Gilbert syndrome

Gilbert syndrome is a rare genetic condition that affects the way bilirubin, a substance created by the breakdown of red blood cells, is processed by the body. This condition is caused by mutations in a gene called UGT1A1.

The UGT1A1 gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called bilirubin-UGT. This enzyme is responsible for attaching a molecule called glucuronic acid to bilirubin, making it water-soluble and easily excreted from the body. However, mutations in the UGT1A1 gene can impair the function of the enzyme, leading to a buildup of unconjugated or unconjugated bilirubin in the blood.

When the level of unconjugated bilirubin exceeds the normal range, it can cause jaundice, a yellowing of the skin and eyes. In individuals with Gilbert syndrome, the level of unconjugated bilirubin can increase after fasting, illness, strenuous exercise, or emotional stress.

The inheritance pattern of Gilbert syndrome is autosomal recessive. This means that an individual must inherit two copies of the mutated UGT1A1 gene, one from each parent, to develop the condition. People who inherit only one copy of the mutated gene are carriers of Gilbert syndrome but do not have any symptoms.

Studies have shown that the prevalence of Gilbert syndrome varies among different populations, with a frequency ranging from 2 to 14 percent. The condition is more common in males than females.

There are resources available for individuals seeking more information on Gilbert syndrome, including genetic testing, support groups, and advocacy organizations. The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) catalog provides detailed information on the genetic basis and clinical features of Gilbert syndrome. PubMed, a database of scientific articles, also has additional references and research studies on this condition.

To learn more about the gene associated with Gilbert syndrome and other genetic diseases, you can visit the National Center for Biotechnology Information’s website or consult with a healthcare professional.

Inheritance

Gilbert syndrome is a genetic condition inherited from one or both parents. It is a rare condition, with about 30 percent of cases being inherited in an autosomal recessive manner.

There are several genes associated with Gilbert syndrome, with the most common being the UGT1A1 gene. Mutations in this gene cause impaired function of the UGT1A1 enzyme, which is responsible for the conjugation of bilirubin in the body.

See also  Fragile XE syndrome

Scientific studies and genetic testing have provided support for the association between these genes and Gilbert syndrome. Additional research is ongoing to learn more about the function of these genes and their role in the development of the condition.

When the UGT1A1 gene is impaired, bilirubin conjugation is less efficient, resulting in higher levels of unconjugated (indirect) bilirubin in the blood. This can lead to episodes of yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice) in individuals with Gilbert syndrome. However, the increased bilirubin levels do not cause any significant health problems or liver damage.

The exact cause of Gilbert syndrome is still not fully understood. Although it is a genetic condition, it is considered a benign disorder with no associated diseases or complications. Some studies have suggested a potential link between Gilbert syndrome and other rare inherited diseases, but more research is needed to establish any definitive connections.

For patients and advocacy groups, the Gilbert Syndrome Patient Advocacy Center is a valuable resource for learning more about the condition. The center provides information about the syndrome, its inheritance patterns, testing options, and available support resources.

References to scientific studies, articles, and clinical trials related to Gilbert syndrome can be found on databases such as PubMed, OMIM, and ClinicalTrials.gov. These resources offer additional information and support for those interested in further research on the topic.

Other Names for This Condition

The Gilbert syndrome is also known by other names, including:

  • Gilberts Syndrome
  • Gilbert Disease
  • Bilirubin-UGT gene deficiency
  • Unconjugated benign bilirubinemia

These names are associated with the condition because they describe the same genetic mutations and clinical episodes related to impaired function of the bilirubin-UGT genes in the body.

Testing for Gilbert syndrome can be done with additional resources such as scientific articles and studies from PubMed, a genetic testing catalog on OMIM, and patient support resources.

Resources Description
PubMed Provides research articles and studies about Gilbert syndrome.
OMIM A genetic testing catalog which contains information about the genes and inheritance of Gilbert syndrome.
Patient Support Support resources and information for patients with Gilbert syndrome.

Genetic testing is rare for Gilbert syndrome as the condition is usually diagnosed based on clinical episodes and blood tests that show elevated levels of unconjugated bilirubin.

Currently, there are no known associated diseases or toxic exposures linked to Gilbert syndrome. However, more research and studies are needed to fully understand the causes and frequency of the condition.

References:

  1. Bosma, P. J. (2003). The genetic basis of the reduced expression phenotype of bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1: Mutation analysis of Gilbert’s syndrome. Gastroenterology, 124(2), 431-440.
  2. ClinicalTrials.gov. (n.d.). Gilbert Syndrome. Retrieved from https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?cond=Gilbert+Syndrome

Additional Information Resources

Here are some additional resources where you can find more information about Gilbert syndrome:

  1. The Gilberts Syndrome Foundation is an advocacy and support center for individuals with Gilbert syndrome. They provide information, resources, and support for those affected by the condition. Visit their website at gilbertssyndrome.org for more information.
  2. The Genetics Home Reference website provides detailed information about the genetic causes and inheritance of Gilbert syndrome. You can learn more about the implicated genes and their function in bilirubin metabolism. Visit their website at ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/gilbert-syndrome.
  3. The OMIM database is a comprehensive catalog of human genes and genetic diseases. It provides detailed information about the gene mutations associated with Gilbert syndrome and their impact on bilirubin conjugation. Visit their website at omim.org for more information.
  4. PubMed is a widely used scientific database that contains articles and studies on a wide range of topics. You can search for scientific research and studies related to Gilbert syndrome on PubMed. Visit their website at pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov to access the database.
  5. The Gilberts Syndrome Research Center conducts research on the causes and mechanisms of Gilbert syndrome. They have published scientific articles and studies on the topic. You can find more information about their research and publications on their website at gilbertsyndromeresearchcenter.com.
  6. ClinicalTrials.gov is a registry of clinical trials for various diseases and conditions. While clinical trials specifically for Gilbert syndrome may be rare, you can find information about ongoing studies and trials related to bilirubin metabolism and liver function. Visit their website at clinicaltrials.gov to search for relevant trials.

Genetic Testing Information

Genetic testing is an important tool in diagnosing and understanding genetic disorders, including Gilbert syndrome. This condition is caused by mutations in the UGT1A1 gene, which plays a role in the body’s ability to process bilirubin. Bilirubin is a byproduct of the breakdown of red blood cells and usually gets processed by the liver to be excreted from the body.

In people with Gilbert syndrome, the UGT1A1 gene is impaired, leading to decreased function of the enzyme it produces. This results in an accumulation of unconjugated bilirubin in the bloodstream, causing occasional episodes of jaundice and related symptoms.

Genetic testing can be used to identify specific mutations in the UGT1A1 gene that are associated with Gilbert syndrome. This testing can help confirm a diagnosis and provide valuable information for patients and healthcare providers. It can also be used for genetic counseling and assessing the risk of inheritance for future generations.

There are several resources available for genetic testing of Gilbert syndrome. The OMIM database and PubMed contain scientific articles and studies about the condition and associated genes. ClinicalTrials.gov provides information about ongoing research and clinical trials related to Gilbert syndrome.

The genetic testing process usually involves extracting a blood sample from the patient, which is then analyzed in a laboratory to identify any mutations in the UGT1A1 gene. The results of the testing can help guide treatment options and offer support for patients with Gilbert syndrome.

Additional Resources and Support

There are various advocacy and support organizations that can provide additional information and support for individuals with Gilbert syndrome and their families. The Gilbert’s Syndrome Support Group is one such organization that offers resources and community support for those affected by this rare condition.

The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) and the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) also provide comprehensive information and resources for rare diseases, including Gilbert syndrome.

It is important for patients and their families to stay informed and educated about Gilbert syndrome. By seeking genetic testing, accessing reliable resources, and staying connected with support organizations, individuals can better understand the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for this condition.

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center

The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) provides reliable and up-to-date information about rare genetic diseases, including Gilbert syndrome. Gilbert syndrome is a rare genetic condition characterized by impaired liver function, specifically the inability to properly process bilirubin, a substance produced when red blood cells are broken down.

Research has shown that Gilbert syndrome is caused by mutations in the UGT1A1 gene, which codes for the enzyme bilirubin-UGT. These mutations result in a decrease in the activity of the enzyme, leading to an accumulation of unconjugated (indirect) bilirubin in the blood. While Gilbert syndrome is generally considered to be a benign condition, it can cause episodes of increased bilirubin levels, resulting in symptoms such as yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice) and fatigue.

While the exact frequency of Gilbert syndrome is not known, studies suggest that it affects around 3 to 7 percent of the population. It is more common in males than in females and often becomes apparent during adolescence or early adulthood.

GARD provides a variety of resources and information for individuals and families affected by Gilbert syndrome. This includes information about the symptoms and causes of the condition, available testing options, and potential treatment approaches. GARD also provides links to relevant scientific articles and references from PubMed, a database of biomedical literature.

In addition to GARD, there are other organizations that provide support and resources for individuals with Gilbert syndrome and other rare genetic diseases. These include advocacy groups, such as the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center, and research organizations, such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and clinicaltrials.gov, which provide information about ongoing clinical trials related to Gilbert syndrome.

For more information about Gilbert syndrome, its symptoms, inheritance patterns, and additional testing options, please visit the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center website or contact the GARD information specialists.

References:

1. Bosma PJ. Inherited disorders of bilirubin metabolism. J Hepatol. 2003;38(1):107-117.

2. Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center. Gilbert Syndrome. Accessed September 30, 2021. https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/6132/gilbert-syndrome

Patient Support and Advocacy Resources

When dealing with a rare condition like Gilbert syndrome, it can be helpful to connect with patient support and advocacy resources. These organizations can provide information, support, and resources to individuals and families affected by the syndrome.

  • Gilbert’s Syndrome Support and Advocacy Center – This center provides information about the condition, genetic testing resources, and support for individuals with Gilbert syndrome. They also conduct research studies and clinical trials to learn more about the causes and treatment options for this condition.
  • Gilbert Syndrome Information Center – This center offers resources and information about Gilbert syndrome, including articles, studies, and resources for genetic testing.
  • Gilbert Syndrome Gene Reviews – This scientific resource provides detailed information about the genes associated with Gilbert syndrome and their impaired function. It also includes information about the inheritance and frequency of this condition.
  • PubMed – This online database contains scientific research articles and studies related to Gilbert syndrome. Individuals and families affected by the syndrome can search for additional information and resources.
  • OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) – This catalog of genes and genetic disorders provides information about the genes associated with Gilbert syndrome and their function. It also includes references to scientific studies and research articles.
  • Bosma Lab – This scientific research group focuses on studies related to the UGT1A1 gene and its association with Gilbert syndrome. They provide information and resources for individuals and families affected by this condition.
See also  PFKM gene

These resources can help individuals and families affected by Gilbert syndrome learn more about the condition, find support, and access genetic testing resources. It is important to stay informed and connected to the latest research and information regarding Gilbert syndrome.

Research Studies from ClinicalTrialsgov

Research studies on Gilbert syndrome are being conducted at various centers around the world. These studies aim to understand more about the genetic causes and inheritance of this condition, as well as its associated symptoms and frequency in different populations.

One of the main focuses of the research is on the genes involved in the metabolism of bilirubin, which is impaired in individuals with Gilbert syndrome. The main gene involved is UGT1A1, which codes for the enzyme responsible for the conjugation of bilirubin. Mutations in this gene can lead to decreased enzyme function and elevated levels of unconjugated bilirubin in the blood.

Studies are also investigating the frequency of these gene mutations in different populations and the associated symptoms and diseases. While Gilbert syndrome is generally considered a benign condition, some individuals may experience rare episodes of more severe symptoms.

There is ongoing research on how the impaired bilirubin metabolism in Gilbert syndrome may be associated with other diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and liver disease. However, the exact mechanisms and causative relationships are still not fully understood.

ClinicalTrials.gov is a valuable resource for finding information about current research studies on Gilbert syndrome. The website catalogs clinical trials from around the world, providing information about the purpose, methodology, and participants of each study.

In addition to research studies, there are also scientific articles and references available on PubMed and OMIM that provide further information and support for patients and healthcare professionals. These resources can help individuals learn more about the genetic basis, testing, and management of Gilbert syndrome.

Advocacy organizations and patient support groups also provide additional resources and information about Gilbert syndrome. They play a crucial role in raising awareness about the condition and supporting individuals with the syndrome and their families.

In summary, ongoing research studies on Gilbert syndrome are helping to deepen our understanding of this rare genetic condition. Studies are focused on the genes and mechanisms involved in the impaired bilirubin metabolism, as well as the associated symptoms and diseases. ClinicalTrials.gov, PubMed, and OMIM are valuable resources for accessing information and references about Gilbert syndrome.

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) is a catalog of genes and diseases that provides valuable information about various genetic conditions. One of the conditions included in this catalog is the Gilbert syndrome. Gilbert syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of bilirubin, a yellow pigment produced when red blood cells are broken down.

The genetic cause of Gilbert syndrome is a mutation in the UGT1A1 gene, also known as bilirubin-UGT. This gene is responsible for the function of an enzyme that conjugates bilirubin in the liver, allowing it to be excreted from the body. However, in individuals with Gilbert syndrome, this enzyme function is impaired.

Patients with Gilbert syndrome typically have mildly elevated levels of unconjugated bilirubin in their blood. These elevated levels of bilirubin can sometimes cause episodes of jaundice, which is characterized by yellowing of the skin and eyes. However, most individuals with Gilbert syndrome are asymptomatic and do not require treatment.

The inheritance of Gilbert syndrome is autosomal recessive, which means that both copies of the UGT1A1 gene must be mutated for an individual to develop the condition. The frequency of Gilbert syndrome in the general population is estimated to be around 5-10 percent.

For more information about Gilbert syndrome and other associated genes and diseases, OMIM provides a wealth of scientific articles and resources. These resources include additional information on the genetic causes of Gilbert syndrome, clinical studies and trials, advocacy and support resources, and more.

Some of the genes associated with Gilbert syndrome include the UGT1A1 gene, as well as the ABCC2 and SLCO1B1 genes. These genes are involved in the transport and excretion of bilirubin from the liver. Mutations in these genes can also result in impaired bilirubin metabolism and cause similar symptoms to Gilbert syndrome.

For references and more information about Gilbert syndrome, its causes, genetic testing, and additional genes associated with the condition, the OMIM catalog is a valuable resource. It provides the most up-to-date information on this rare genetic disorder and can help patients, healthcare providers, and researchers stay informed about the latest discoveries and advancements in the field.

– This catalog of genes and diseases from OMIM provides a comprehensive overview of various genetic conditions, including the rare and relatively benign Gilbert syndrome. With the availability of scientific articles, clinical trials, and additional resources, individuals can learn more about the underlying causes of this condition, the genetic testing options available, and find support and advocacy organizations if needed.

Scientific Articles on PubMed

PubMed is a valuable resource for scientific research on Gilbert syndrome. It provides a central hub for scientists and researchers to access a wide range of scholarly articles on this rare genetic condition.

Gilbert syndrome is caused by mutations in the bilirubin-UGT gene. This gene is responsible for the conjugation of bilirubin in the liver, a process necessary for its elimination from the body. In individuals with Gilbert syndrome, the function of this gene is impaired, leading to increased levels of unconjugated bilirubin in the blood.

Research on Gilbert syndrome has focused on understanding the genetic basis of the condition and its associated clinical manifestations. Studies have identified specific gene mutations associated with the syndrome and have explored the inheritance patterns and frequency of these mutations in affected individuals.

Scientific articles on PubMed provide invaluable information about the causes, inheritance, and clinical features of Gilbert syndrome. These resources also explore the relationship between Gilbert syndrome and other rare diseases, as well as the toxic effects of bilirubin in the body.

In addition to learning about the genetic and clinical aspects of Gilbert syndrome, PubMed articles provide information on testing and diagnosis of the condition. Such resources are crucial for healthcare providers to accurately identify and manage patients with Gilbert syndrome.

Advocacy groups and patient support organizations also rely on the information available on PubMed to educate individuals about Gilbert syndrome. These resources help patients and their families understand the condition better and provide additional resources for support.

Many scientific articles on PubMed discuss the management and treatment of Gilbert syndrome. They provide insights into the best practices for monitoring bilirubin levels, treating episodes of jaundice, and managing any associated complications.

The scientific articles on PubMed often reference clinicaltrialsgov as additional resources for ongoing studies and clinical trials related to Gilbert syndrome. These studies aim to further understand the condition and develop effective interventions for affected individuals.

Overall, the scientific articles on PubMed are essential tools for researchers, healthcare providers, and patient advocacy groups to gain a comprehensive understanding of Gilbert syndrome. They provide valuable insights into the genetic basis, clinical features, and management of this rare condition.

References

  • About Gilbert Syndrome: Information about the genetic disorder Gilbert syndrome – {link to a reputable website with information about Gilbert syndrome}.
  • Genes and Inheritance: Learn about the genes associated with Gilbert syndrome and how it is inherited – {link to a reliable source explaining the genes and inheritance of Gilbert syndrome}.
  • Gilbert Syndrome Testing: Information on the different tests available to diagnose Gilbert syndrome and the gene(s) that are tested – {link to a credible resource providing information on Gilbert syndrome testing}.
  • Rare Mutations and Linked Disorders: Research studies and resources on rare gene mutations associated with Gilbert syndrome and other rare disorders related to impaired bilirubin conjugation – {link to relevant articles or a catalog of rare gene mutations associated with Gilbert syndrome and related disorders}.
  • Clinical Trials and Research: Find out about ongoing clinical trials and research studies related to Gilbert syndrome and its causes, symptoms, and treatment options – {link to a database or website with information on clinical trials and research studies related to Gilbert syndrome}.
  • Affected Body Functions: Learn more about the impact of Gilbert syndrome on the body’s functions and the toxic effects of unconjugated bilirubin – {link to a reliable resource explaining the effects of Gilbert syndrome on body functions and bilirubin toxicity}.
  • Advocacy and Support: Resources and support organizations for individuals and families affected by Gilbert syndrome – {link to advocacy organizations or support groups for Gilbert syndrome patients and their families}.
  • Additional Information: More articles or scientific papers providing further information on Gilbert syndrome and related topics – {link to additional resources or a catalog of scientific articles on Gilbert syndrome}.
  • References and Catalogs: Sources and catalogs of references used in the research and information about Gilbert syndrome – {link to a reputable source or website containing references and catalogs of studies and research on Gilbert syndrome}.
  • OMIM and PubMed: Access the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) and PubMed databases for more information on Gilbert syndrome and related genes and diseases – {link to OMIM and PubMed databases for Gilbert syndrome and related information}.
  • Patient Support Center: Support and resources for patients and caregivers, including information on testing for Gilbert syndrome and finding the right healthcare providers – {link to a patient support center or resource center for Gilbert syndrome patients and caregivers}.
Peter Reeves

By Peter Reeves

Australian National Genomic Information Service, including the database of BioManager, has been maintained for a long time by Peter Reeves, a professor at the University of Sydney. Professor Reeves is internationally renowned for his genetic analysis of enteric bacteria. He determined the genetic basis of the enormous variation in O antigens.