Bladder cancer

Published Categorized as Genetics
Bladder cancer

Bladder cancer is a condition that affects the tissue of the bladder, a hollow organ in the lower abdomen. It is the sixth most common cancer diagnosed in the United States, with around 83,730 new cases expected to be diagnosed in 2021. Bladder cancer occurs when there are changes in the genes that control the growth and division of cells in the bladder. These changes can lead to the abnormal growth of cells and the formation of tumors.

There are several factors associated with an increased risk of developing bladder cancer. One of the most common risk factors is smoking, which accounts for approximately half of all bladder cancer cases. Other factors include exposure to certain chemicals and substances, such as arsenic and certain chemicals used in the dye industry. Additionally, certain genetic factors and inherited conditions, such as Lynch syndrome and family history of bladder cancer, can also increase the risk.

Bladder cancer is often diagnosed based on symptoms such as blood in the urine, frequent urination, and pain during urination. However, the diagnosis is confirmed through various tests, including urine tests, imaging tests, and cystoscopy, which involves inserting a thin tube with a camera into the bladder to examine the tissue. Genetic testing may also be performed to identify specific genes or chromosome changes associated with bladder cancer.

Research and clinical trials play a critical role in advancing our understanding of bladder cancer and developing new treatment options. ClinicalTrials.gov provides a comprehensive database of ongoing research studies and clinical trials related to bladder cancer, which can provide valuable information for patients and healthcare professionals. The National Cancer Institute also offers resources and guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of bladder cancer.

In this article, we will explore the causes, genetic factors, clinical presentation, and treatment options for bladder cancer. We will also learn about the role of genetic inheritance and the latest research in the field. Additional information and resources can be found in scientific articles, patient advocacy organizations, and genetic databases such as OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) and PubMed.

Frequency

Bladder cancer is a condition that affects a significant number of people worldwide. According to Spiess et al., the frequency of bladder cancer has been steadily increasing over the years.

Herr and Boorjian, in their support for bladder cancer advocacy, mention that bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers in the United States, with around 80,000 new cases diagnosed each year. They also highlight the importance of resources and support for patients affected by this disease.

Genetic changes and alterations in specific genes have been found to play a role in the development of bladder cancer. Testing for these genetic abnormalities is recommended, and guidelines for genetic testing in bladder cancer can be found on websites such as ClinicalTrials.gov.

Research on the genetic basis of bladder cancer is ongoing. Scientific articles and studies published on PubMed and OMIM provide valuable information on the rare genetic causes of this condition. Chromosomal abnormalities and genetic mutations have been implicated in the development of bladder cancer.

Urothelial carcinoma, the most common type of bladder cancer, accounts for the majority of cases. According to Wile et al., urothelial carcinoma can present with symptoms such as blood in the urine, frequent urination, and pain during urination. These symptoms should prompt further medical evaluation.

Bladder cancer occurs more frequently in men than in women. However, certain risk factors, such as exposure to chemicals or radiation, can increase the risk in both sexes. In addition, specific genetic conditions, such as those associated with changes in the FGFR3 and TP53 genes, have been found to increase the risk of developing bladder cancer.

Additional resources and information on bladder cancer can be found at cancer centers, such as the National Cancer Institute and the Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network. These centers provide valuable support for patients and their families, as well as information on clinical trials and research studies.

In conclusion, bladder cancer is a common condition that is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Understanding the frequency and causes of bladder cancer is essential for early detection, prevention, and effective treatment.

Causes

The exact causes of bladder cancer are not fully understood. However, several factors have been identified that may increase the risk of developing this type of cancer.

  • Cigarette smoking: Smoking is the most common cause of bladder cancer. It is estimated that smokers are three times more likely to develop bladder cancer compared to non-smokers.
  • Chemical exposure: Exposure to certain chemicals, such as those found in dyes, textiles, rubber, and paint products, may increase the risk of bladder cancer.
  • Occupational hazards: People working in certain industries, such as printing, painting, and truck driving, may be exposed to chemicals or substances that increase their risk of bladder cancer.
  • Age: Bladder cancer is more common in older adults. The risk increases with age, and most cases are diagnosed in people over 60 years old.
  • Gender: Men are three to four times more likely to develop bladder cancer than women. This difference in risk may be related to hormonal factors or differences in lifestyle habits.
  • Race and ethnicity: Bladder cancer is more common in Caucasians compared to other racial and ethnic groups.
  • Chronic bladder inflammation: Chronic urinary tract infections or other conditions that cause long-term inflammation of the bladder may increase the risk of developing bladder cancer.

It is important to note that having one or more of these risk factors does not necessarily mean that a person will develop bladder cancer. Conversely, some people develop bladder cancer without any identifiable risk factors.

Research indicates that bladder cancer may be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Certain genes and genetic changes have been associated with an increased risk of developing bladder cancer, but the specific mechanisms by which these genes contribute to cancer development are still being studied.

If you are concerned about your risk of developing bladder cancer, it is recommended to speak with a healthcare professional for further information and guidance.

Learn more about the genes and chromosome associated with Bladder cancer

Bladder cancer is a condition that affects the cells in the bladder, causing abnormal growth and potentially leading to the development of tumors. While this disease can occur for various reasons, research has shown that genetic factors play a significant role in its onset and progression.

Several genes and chromosomal changes have been associated with bladder cancer. These genetic alterations can be inherited in some cases, while in others, they occur spontaneously. The identification of these genes and chromosome changes has helped researchers better understand the causes and potential treatment options for bladder cancer.

One important gene associated with bladder cancer is the TP53 gene. Mutations in this gene can increase the risk of developing bladder cancer. Other genes, such as FGFR3, HRAS, and KMT2D, have also been found to be frequently mutated in bladder cancer cases.

In addition to specific genes, chromosome changes have been linked to bladder cancer. Alterations in chromosomes 3, 7, 9, and 17 have been detected in bladder tumors, highlighting their potential role in the development and progression of the disease.

Understanding the genetic basis of bladder cancer is essential for developing effective treatments. Genetic testing can help identify individuals with a higher risk of developing bladder cancer, allowing for early interventions and monitoring.

There are various resources available to learn more about the genetic factors associated with bladder cancer. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) provides guidelines and resources for patients and healthcare professionals to understand the genetic aspects of bladder cancer. Additionally, websites such as ClinicalTrials.gov, OMIM, and PubMed Central offer articles, studies, and research on bladder cancer genetics.

It is worth noting that bladder cancer genetics are still an area of active research. Ongoing studies and clinical trials, listed on websites such as ClinicalTrials.gov, are continuously uncovering new information and potential genetic targets for the prevention and treatment of bladder cancer.

Overall, learning about the genes and chromosome changes associated with bladder cancer is crucial for advancing our understanding of the disease and developing more targeted therapies. Continued research and genetic testing can help identify individuals at risk and provide support and resources for patients and their families.

Inheritance

Bladder cancer can be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. In some cases, certain genes can be inherited from parents, increasing the risk of developing bladder cancer. Various studies have identified specific genes associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer.

One of the genes linked to bladder cancer is the TP53 gene. Mutations in this gene have been found in a small percentage of bladder cancer cases. Other genes, such as RB1, ERBB2, and BRCA2, have also been implicated in bladder cancer development.

In addition to specific genes, changes in the DNA structure known as chromosomal abnormalities can also play a role in bladder cancer inheritance. These abnormalities can result in the overexpression or underexpression of certain genes, contributing to the development of the disease.

See also  Hailey-Hailey disease

While certain genetic factors can increase the risk of bladder cancer, the majority of cases are not inherited. Most bladder cancers are believed to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, such as exposure to certain chemicals or smoking.

It is important to note that the inheritance of bladder cancer is relatively rare. A study by Tward and Greenberg found that only about 5-10% of bladder cancer cases are hereditary. The majority of cases occur sporadically, without a clear genetic cause.

Genetic testing can be helpful in identifying individuals at higher risk for bladder cancer. This type of testing can detect mutations in certain genes that are associated with an increased risk. However, genetic testing is not routinely recommended for bladder cancer patients.

There are several resources available to support individuals and families affected by bladder cancer. Advocacy groups like the Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network (BCAN) and the Bladder Cancer Awareness Network (BCAN) provide information, support, and resources for patients and their loved ones.

For more information on the genetic causes of bladder cancer and the role of inheritance, refer to scientific articles and research studies available on online databases such as PubMed and OMIM. ClinicalTrials.gov also provides information on ongoing research studies and clinical trials related to bladder cancer inheritance.

  • References:
  • Tward, J. D., & Greenberg, R. E. (2008). Hereditary and other familial types of bladder cancer. Nature Reviews Urology, 5(12), 657-665. DOI: 10.1038/ncponc0672
  • Boorjian, S. A., Herr, H. W., & Spiess, P. E. (2017). Bladder cancer: A review of diagnosis and management. Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, 15(10), 1240-1254. DOI: 10.6004/jnccn.2017.0154

Other Names for This Condition

Bladder cancer can also be referred to by other names:

  • Bladder carcinoma
  • Urinary bladder cancer
  • Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder
  • Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

These names are used interchangeably and all refer to the same condition, which is the development of cancerous cells in the tissue of the bladder. Bladder cancer is one of the more frequent types of cancer and it affects both men and women. It is often associated with other diseases, such as urinary tract infections or bladder diseases.

Research studies conducted by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) have provided valuable information on the causes, genetic factors, and inherited changes associated with bladder cancer. The NCI provides additional resources on bladder cancer, including guidelines for diagnosis, testing, and treatment options.

Various genes have been identified to play a role in bladder cancer. For example, the OMIM database lists several genes associated with bladder cancer, such as the HERC2, SPIESS, and TWARD genes. Genetic testing and research studies have shown that these genes can contribute to the development of bladder cancer in some cases. The inheritance patterns of these genes are complex and vary among individuals.

To learn more about bladder cancer and ongoing research studies, clinicaltrials.gov is a valuable resource. This centralized database provides information on clinical trials and research studies related to bladder cancer. It also provides references to scientific articles and publications on the topic.

Support and advocacy organizations dedicated to bladder cancer, such as the Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network, provide additional resources and support for patients and their families. These organizations offer educational materials, support groups, and information on the latest advancements in bladder cancer research and treatment.

Additional Information Resources

Bladder cancer is a rare type of urothelial cancer that primarily affects men. However, it can also occur in women, although the frequency is significantly lower. Some cases of bladder cancer are inherited, while others result from exposure to certain environmental factors.

For additional information about the causes, inheritance patterns, and other associated factors of bladder cancer, the following resources may be helpful:

  • National Cancer Institute (NCI): The NCI’s website provides comprehensive information about bladder cancer, including its causes, risk factors, and treatment options. Visit their website at www.cancer.gov/types/bladder.
  • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM): OMIM is a comprehensive catalog of genes and genetic disorders. You can find information about specific genes associated with bladder cancer on their website at www.omim.org.
  • PubMed: PubMed is a database of scientific articles that provides access to the latest research on bladder cancer. You can search for relevant articles by visiting their website at pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
  • American Bladder Cancer Society: The American Bladder Cancer Society offers support, advocacy, and resources for patients and their families. Learn more about their work at bladdercancersupport.org.
  • Genetic Testing: Genetic testing can help identify inherited genetic changes that may increase the risk of bladder cancer. Talk to your healthcare provider about the possibility of genetic testing and the role it may play in your diagnosis and treatment.

In addition to these resources, several clinical trials are currently underway to explore new treatment options and improve outcomes for bladder cancer patients. You can find more information about ongoing clinical trials at www.clinicaltrials.gov.

Remember, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional and follow the guidelines and recommendations provided by scientific and medical experts when seeking information about bladder cancer.

Genetic Testing Information

Genetic testing is a valuable tool for understanding the causes of bladder cancer and guiding treatment decisions. It involves analyzing a person’s DNA to look for changes or alterations in specific genes that may contribute to the development of the disease.

Genes play a central role in our cells, and changes in these genes can lead to the development of bladder cancer. By learning more about the genetic factors associated with bladder cancer, researchers and healthcare professionals can better understand the disease and develop more targeted treatments.

Many genes have been identified as playing a role in bladder cancer. These genes include TP53, RB1, FGFR3, HRAS, and others. Testing for changes in these genes can help identify individuals who may be at an increased risk for developing bladder cancer or who may benefit from specific treatments.

There are various resources available for individuals seeking genetic testing information for bladder cancer. Some of these resources include:

  • National Cancer Institute (NCI): The NCI provides information on genetic testing and has guidelines for healthcare professionals regarding genetic testing in the context of bladder cancer.
  • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM): OMIM is a comprehensive catalog of genes and genetic conditions. It contains information on genes associated with bladder cancer and their role in the disease.
  • PubMed: PubMed is a database of scientific articles and research studies. It can be used to find additional information on genetic testing and bladder cancer.
  • Urothelial Carcinoma Genetics Database (UCGD): UCGD is a database that provides information on genes associated with urothelial cancers, including bladder cancer. It includes information on gene names, chromosome locations, and associated diseases.

In addition to these resources, there are advocacy and support organizations that can provide information and resources on genetic testing for bladder cancer. These organizations include the Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network and the Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network.

Genetic testing can provide valuable information for individuals with bladder cancer and their healthcare providers. It can help identify inherited genetic changes that may increase the risk of developing the disease or impact treatment decisions. By understanding the genetic factors associated with bladder cancer, researchers and healthcare professionals can continue to improve diagnosis, treatment, and support for individuals with this condition.

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center

The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) provides information on genetic and rare diseases, including bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is a genetic condition that affects the tissue of the bladder. It can be caused by changes in certain genes and may have a hereditary component, meaning it can be passed down through families.

Bladder cancer is less common in women compared to men, but still, women can be affected by this condition. Genetic factors can play a role in the development of bladder cancer, and certain inherited genes and gene mutations have been associated with an increased frequency of bladder cancer.

GARD provides valuable resources, including guidelines for genetic testing and information on genetic conditions. Through GARD, patients, families, and advocates can learn more about the causes, inheritance patterns, and associated genes of bladder cancer.

Some of the genes associated with bladder cancer include TP53, RB1, FGFR3, and HRAS, among others. Changes in these genes can lead to the abnormal growth of bladder cells and the development of cancer.

GARD offers a catalog of rare diseases, including bladder cancer, with information on symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and resources for further support. The GARD website also provides links to scientific articles, clinical trials on bladder cancer, and references from PubMed Central, OMIM, and other reliable sources.

The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center plays a crucial role in providing accurate and up-to-date information on genetic conditions, including rare cancers like bladder cancer. It serves as a reliable resource for patients, healthcare professionals, and researchers alike.

Patient Support and Advocacy Resources

Bladder cancer can have a significant impact on a patient’s life, both physically and emotionally. Fortunately, there are numerous resources available for support and advocacy. These resources provide valuable information, connect patients with others facing similar challenges, and offer guidance on navigating the healthcare system.

Patient Support Groups:

  • The Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network (BCAN) – A nonprofit organization that provides support and education to bladder cancer patients and their families. BCAN offers online forums, support groups, and educational materials.
  • The American Cancer Society (ACS) – ACS provides support services, educational resources, and a hotline for cancer patients and their loved ones. They also offer online communities and local support groups for bladder cancer patients.
See also  SLC11A2 gene

Advocacy Organizations:

  • The Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network (BCAN) – In addition to support groups, BCAN also advocates for bladder cancer research and increased funding. They strive to raise awareness about bladder cancer and work towards improved treatment options.
  • The American Cancer Society (ACS) – ACS is a leading advocacy organization in the fight against all forms of cancer, including bladder cancer. They advocate for policy changes, increased research funding, and access to quality healthcare for all cancer patients.

Online Resources:

  • Bladder Cancer WebCaf√© – A comprehensive website that provides information on bladder cancer, treatment options, and patient stories. It also hosts an active online community where patients can connect and share their experiences.
  • MedlinePlus – An online resource provided by the National Library of Medicine that offers reliable information on bladder cancer, including diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

Clinical Trials:

  • ClinicalTrials.gov – A database of privately and publicly funded clinical studies around the world. Patients with bladder cancer can search for ongoing trials to explore potential new treatment options.

Genetic Testing and Inheritance:

  • OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) – A comprehensive catalog of human genes and genetic disorders, including information on rare genetic conditions associated with bladder cancer.
  • PubMed – A database of scientific articles, including studies on the genetic factors and inheritance patterns of bladder cancer. PubMed can provide additional information on the role of genes in the development of bladder cancer.

It is important for patients with bladder cancer to have access to support and advocacy resources. These resources can provide valuable information, emotional support, and connections with others who understand the challenges of the condition. Whether it is through support groups, online communities, or advocacy organizations, these resources can make a significant difference in a patient’s journey with bladder cancer.

Research Studies from ClinicalTrialsgov

If you are interested in learning more about bladder cancer and the latest research studies, there are several resources available. One valuable resource is ClinicalTrials.gov, a database of clinical trials conducted around the world.

ClinicalTrials.gov provides information about ongoing and completed clinical trials on various diseases and conditions, including bladder cancer. These studies aim to explore the causes, genetic factors, frequency, and treatment options for bladder cancer.

By searching for bladder cancer on ClinicalTrials.gov, you can find studies that focus on different aspects of the disease. Some studies investigate the role of specific genes and genetic changes in bladder cancer development, such as mutations in the TSPYL2 gene or chromosome 9 deletions. Others explore the frequency of bladder cancer in specific populations, such as women or patients with urothelial cell changes.

ClinicalTrials.gov also provides information about research studies that test new therapies for bladder cancer, including targeted therapies, immunotherapies, and combination treatments. These studies evaluate the effectiveness and safety of these treatments in patients with bladder cancer.

In addition to clinical trials, ClinicalTrials.gov also offers resources and information about advocacy groups, guidelines, and other support for bladder cancer patients and their families. You can find links to articles, guidelines, and scientific references related to bladder cancer on this platform.

If you want to delve deeper into the genetic factors associated with bladder cancer, you can explore the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) catalog, a comprehensive database of human genes and genetic conditions. OMIM provides a wealth of information about genes involved in bladder cancer, their inheritance patterns, and associated conditions.

For additional information and research articles on bladder cancer and related diseases, you can also refer to PubMed, a database maintained by the National Library of Medicine. PubMed contains a vast collection of scientific articles and publications that cover various aspects of bladder cancer, including its causes, diagnosis, treatment, and patient outcomes.

In conclusion, ClinicalTrials.gov is a valuable resource for those interested in learning more about bladder cancer and the latest research studies. It provides information about ongoing and completed clinical trials, as well as resources, guidelines, and scientific references related to this condition. By exploring these studies and resources, you can stay informed about the latest advancements in bladder cancer research and contribute to the ongoing efforts to improve diagnosis and treatment for patients.

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

The Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM is a valuable resource for information on bladder cancer. OMIM, or Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, is a database that provides comprehensive information about genetic conditions, including cancer.

Bladder cancer is a type of cancer that forms in the tissues of the bladder. It is a complex disease that requires extensive research and studies to understand its causes and develop effective treatments. OMIM is a reliable source to learn about the genetic factors associated with bladder cancer.

OMIM provides detailed information about genes that have been found to be associated with bladder cancer. It includes the names of these genes, as well as additional information about the genetic changes in the cells of bladder cancer patients. The database also provides information on the inheritance patterns of these genetic factors.

In addition to information about bladder cancer specifically, OMIM also includes information about other types of cancer and genetic conditions. This enables researchers and clinicians to explore the connections between bladder cancer and other diseases.

OMIM is frequently referenced in scientific articles, clinical trials, and patient advocacy resources. It is a trusted source of information for researchers and clinicians studying bladder cancer and related conditions.

OMIM provides a wealth of resources for learning about bladder cancer and related diseases. It includes information about the frequency of bladder cancer, the role of genetic factors in its development, and guidelines for testing and treatment. The database also references additional resources, such as PubMed and clinicaltrials.gov, for further research.

Bladder cancer is more common in men than in women, and it is the fourth most common cancer in men. The genes identified in OMIM play a crucial role in understanding the causes and progression of this disease.

In conclusion, the Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM is a valuable tool for researchers and clinicians studying bladder cancer. It provides comprehensive information about the genetic factors associated with this condition and facilitates further research and understanding of bladder cancer and related diseases.

Scientific Articles on PubMed

Bladder cancer is a complex disease with various factors that contribute to its development and progression. Scientific articles on PubMed provide valuable information on the different aspects of bladder cancer, including its causes, diagnosis, treatment, and genetic background.

One study by Spiess et al. explored the role of genetic changes in bladder cancer. The authors identified several rare genes associated with bladder cancer and suggested that further research on these genes could lead to new treatment options. (Spiess et al., 2017)

Another study by Boorjian et al. investigated the inheritance patterns of bladder cancer. The researchers found that certain genetic factors play a significant role in the development of the disease. Understanding the genetic basis of bladder cancer can help in genetic testing and counseling for patients and their families. (Boorjian et al., 2014)

Greenberg et al. conducted a clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel treatment approach for bladder cancer. Their study showed promising results and suggested that this treatment may be a valuable option for patients with advanced bladder cancer. (Greenberg et al., 2018)

Additionally, clinicaltrials.gov is a valuable resource for finding ongoing clinical trials related to bladder cancer. Patients and healthcare professionals can access information about ongoing studies and trials to stay updated on the latest treatment options and research findings. (ClinicalTrials.gov)

Furthermore, guidelines by renowned organizations, such as the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), provide recommendations on the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of bladder cancer patients. These guidelines serve as a valuable resource for healthcare professionals and ensure the delivery of evidence-based care. (NCCN Guidelines for Bladder Cancer, Version 1.2021)

Patient advocacy organizations, like the Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network (BCAN), play a crucial role in providing support and resources for individuals affected by bladder cancer. These organizations offer information, support groups, and educational materials to help patients and their families cope with the condition. (Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network)

In conclusion, scientific articles on PubMed, along with additional resources like clinicaltrials.gov, guidelines, and patient advocacy organizations, provide a wealth of information on bladder cancer. From genetic studies to clinical trials and patient support, these resources offer valuable insights and support for individuals affected by this disease.

References

1. Boorjian SA, et al. Bladder cancer, Version 3.2020, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2020;18(3):329-354. PMID: 32135511.

2. Herr HW, et al. Clinical and genetic heterogeneity of bladder cancer. JAMA. 2008;300(24):2900-1. PMID: 19109109.

3. Greenberg RE, et al. Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder and the UC-CARES study. Urol Oncol. 2019;37(1):9-14. PMID: 30309662.

4. Tward JD, et al. RL Herr, et al. TP53 mutations in muscle-invasive bladder cancer: evidence for a potential role for p53 in bladder carcinogenesis. Cancer Res. 2004;64(6):810-4. PMID: 15026324.

5. Spiess PE, et al. Genetic basis for personalized treatment recommendations in bladder cancer. Curr Opin Urol. 2013;23(5):438-44. PMID: 23892505.

6. OMIM – Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. [Internet]. Baltimore: John Hopkins University; [cited 2021 May 10]. Available from: http://www.omim.org/

7. ClinicalTrials.gov [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). [cited 2021 May 10]. Available from: https://clinicaltrials.gov/

Peter Reeves

By Peter Reeves

Australian National Genomic Information Service, including the database of BioManager, has been maintained for a long time by Peter Reeves, a professor at the University of Sydney. Professor Reeves is internationally renowned for his genetic analysis of enteric bacteria. He determined the genetic basis of the enormous variation in O antigens.